Presentation on theme: "Workshop title: Group Work Presented by – Date – No man is an island, entire of itself. John Donne."— Presentation transcript:
Workshop title: Group Work Presented by – Date – No man is an island, entire of itself. John Donne
Aim and Objectives Aim: To develop an understanding of the complexity of groups Objectives: by the end of the session learners will be able to: List the factors that affect group bonding and togetherness State why group work is important in CLIAG Discuss the development of groups Analyze effective groups
Introductions – Us as a Group? Work in groups of four. Introduce yourself to everyone and together decide if you are: A collection of four individuals A group Be prepared to feedback your findings supporting your decision and introducing everyone in the group. You have five minutes for this exercise.
What Are They Talking About? I feel totally physically sick and never sleep the night before. Its the worst part of any training or learning I will do anything to get out of it – no matter what happens to me its better than doing that. I know I get quiet, my stomach cramps, I shake and on occasions I have fainted. Its really bad, I get a reputation for being a pain, but I just hate it – why do they all do it to us? We should get them to do it so they know what it feels like!
Defining Groups Group entitativity refers to the degree to which a collection of persons is perceived as being bonded together in a coherent unit. Certain properties makes collections of individuals more or less entitative (bonded): Interdependence Importance Interaction Size Duration Permeability Similarity Group structure Cohesions Nijstad (2009)
Why Have Groups? Students working in effective groups: Improves students intellectually – encourages articulation of ideas Develops: memory, comprehension, analysis, synthesis and evaluation Stimulates interest and motivation Develops communication skills Enhances social skills Develops confidence Develops skills for work Caters for variety of learning styles Adapted from The Benefits of Group Study Journal article by Kenneth C. Petress; Education, Vol. 124, 2004
Developing Entitavity Form groups of five. Work with people who you not know well. Discuss: How you as a group could enable your learners to develop a greater sense of groupiness or entitavity and encourage the development of Petresss skills. You have ten minutes for this exercise. One member of your group will be asked to share your findings with another group and if your whole group is large enough the process will be repeated (World café style).
Cohesive Groups You have to work in groups of 7/8. Your task is: To lower the cane, from shoulder height to knee height and return it to shoulder height, keeping the cane level, at all times. Your tutor will assess your performance. You have five minutes for this exercise. Rules: All members of the group must maintain contact with the cane at all times, while undertaking the task. The cane must be held on upturned, flat, index fingers- no curling of fingers, slanting of hands/ fingers etc allowed Nothing can be added or taken away from the cane.
Group Development Seven stages of developing cooperative learning groups : Defining and structuring procedures, becoming orientated Conforming to procedures and getting acquainted Recognizing mutuality and building trust Rebelling and differentiating Committing and taking ownership of goals, procedures and other members Functioning maturely and productively Terminating Johnson, D.,W. & Johnson, F., P. (1991) adapted model from Tuckman (1965)
Barriers to Effective Group Work Work in pairs and offer two solutions to the two barriers you have been allocated. Think through what could be realistically done in your own environments. Be creative: idea storm, think of what should not be done first, go through the letters of the alphabet for ideas, use mind maps etc. You have 15 minutes for this exercise.
Effective Groups Johnson & Johnson (1991) 1.Clear cooperative goals 2.Accurate two-way communication among members 3.Widespread distribution participation and leadership among group members 4.Use of consensus to arrive at answers, solutions and decisions 5.Power and influence based on expertise, access to information and social skills 6.Frequent occurrence of controversy 7.Open confrontation and negotiation of conflicts of interest among members including coordinator 8.High cohesiveness 9.High trust among members 10.Climate of acceptance, respect and support among members and between group and coordinator 11.Group norms promoting individual responsibility, accountability, helping and sharing and achievement 12.Generally high group and interpersonal skills among members
Summary What affects group bonding and togetherness? What can tutors do to develop these characteristics in the groups? What can be done to reduce student anxiety relating to introducing themselves to the group? Why have group work in further education? What did you learn about group cohesiveness? What stages do groups go through? How can tutors develop effective learning, CLIAG groups?
References Johnson, D., W. & Johnson, R. (1989) Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company Johnson, D., W. & Johnson, F., P, (1991) Joining Together, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice –Hall International Johnson, D., W. & Johnson, R. & Holubec, E. (1990) Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the classroom 3 rd ed., Edina, MN: Interaction Books Nijstad, B., A. (2009), Group Performance New York: Psychology Press Petress, K., C. The Benefits of Group Study, Education, Vol. 124, 2004