2Poultry is the collective term applied to domestic birds reared for human consumption and includes duck, goose, turkey and guinea fowl.Each may be battery reared or free range and is available oven ready.When using oven ready poultry always ensure that the packaged giblets are removed before cooking. Turkeys and chickens are purchased by both weight and number, for example, 5 oven ready 2 kg roasting chickens.
4Quality points of Chicken The following list indicates the quality points to look for when purchasing poultry.Plump breastsWhite unbroken skinPliable breast bonePleasant smellDry to the touch
5HygieneWhen dealing with any aspect of preparing raw poultry all the rules of hygiene, and health and safety apply. Handlers must:have an excellent standard of personal hygieneavoid all risks of cross contaminationhandle the poultry as little as possiblemake full use of refrigeration
6Ensure All Equipment Is Clean and Well Maintained. Carry Out the Processes in Cool Conditions.Seek Immediate First Aid for Any Cut or Other Injury.Never Process Partly Defrosted Poultry.
7Danger From Salmonella Infection. Most poultry harbour the risk of salmonella bacteria contained in their gut.Anything coming into contact with poultry intestines can easily become a carrier of this bacteria, therefore, every effort must be taken to minimise the spread by any form of cross contamination.
8When poultry is drawn there is a danger of salmonella bacteria contained in the gut infecting the carcass and the flesh.Great care is needed to minimise this threat and it is recommended that evisceration is carried out by the supplier.Undrawn birds should be hung by the legs until required and stored for a maximum of three days in a cold room with a maximum temperature of 3°C.
9If Drawing Is Carried Out on Your Premises Always Follow These Guidelines. Always use a special working area separate from the rest of the kitchen.Use the same equipment which is not used for any other purpose.Take great care when cleaning equipment which has been used for drawing poultry.Refrigerate all poultry as soon as possible after the basic preparation.Constantly be aware of the risk of cross contamination.
10Skinning.The skinning process can be carried out by cutting the skin along the backbone and then carefully pulling it away from the flesh using fingers and a small knife.The skin over the ridge of the breast is difficult to remove without damage as there is no flesh under it. When the winglet and feet are reached cut through the ligaments to detach them from the carcass.
11Preparing Chicken for Sauté Various jointing and boning processes are necessary depending on how the poultry is to be used, for example, sauté, grilling, suprêmes, ballotines or galatines.Link to NLN cutting chicken for sauté.Link to NLN cutting chicken for saute
13Trussing Or Tying.Trussing or tying means that the joint or bird is tied to a suitable shape with string.The term trussing is applied to poultry only. A non slipping knot is used to secure all strings.
14There are two methods used for trussing poultry, one is used for entrée and the other for roasting. Both methods use two strings.When trussing for entrée the legs are folded and inserted beneath the breast skin. The feet have all but the centre toe removed and the remaining toenail trimmed off.
15 Trussing for Entrée.When trussing for entrée the legs are folded and inserted beneath the breast skin.The feet have all but the centre toe removed and the remaining toenail trimmed off.
16Trussing for Roasting.When trussing for roasting, the feet are treated as above but left standing and not inserted under the skin of the breast.
17The Preparation Of A Turkey. Turkeys are cleaned and trussed in the same way as chickens, but it is good practice to remove the wishbone before trussing to make carving the breast easier which allows a greater number of regular portions to be produced.It is also necessary to strip the sinews from the legs using pliers and a sinew hook, again to make carving easier and more cost effective.
18If the legs are removed they should be boned out and batted to form a flat shape and any remaining sinews removed. A pre-prepared and cooled stuffing may then be added and the legs rolled and tied to form a sausage shape.They can then be seasoned, coated with melted butter and wrapped in cooking foil. Any excess stuffing can also be made into sausage shapes and cooked together with the rolled legs.