Presentation on theme: "HMS TRAFALGAR (SSN) A Submarine is only ever called a: BOAT."— Presentation transcript:
HMS TRAFALGAR (SSN) A Submarine is only ever called a: BOAT
Naval Terminology Designed to Confuse SS:Submarine SSN:Submarine (Nuclear Propelled) SSBN:Submarine (Nuclear Propelled with Ballistic Missiles) FF:Frigate DD:Destroyer DDG:Destroyer with Guided Missiles CV:Carrier CVF:Carrier with fixed wing aircraft
Classes of SSN (Hunter Killer) 2nd Generation HMS Swiftsure (S Boats) HMS Sceptre HMS Spartan HMS Splendid HMS Sovereign HMS Superb
Classes of SSN (Hunter Killer) 3rd Generation HMS Trafalgar (T boats) HMS Turbulent HMS Tireless HMS Torbay HMS Trenchant HMS Talent HMS Triumph Astute (A Boats)
Tomahawk Land Attack Missile Fired from HMS Splendid
Missile in Flight
One Less Command Bunker
HMS VANGUARD (SSBN)
Classes of SSBN (Bomber) HMS Vanguard (Trident) HMS Victorious HMS Vengeance HMS Vigilant
What Happens Underwater
The Trident Missile
THE SUBMARINE MUST BE ABLE TO: Maintain watertight integrity Withstand pressure at depth Remain manoeuvrable Provide a stable platform to carry and fire weapons Provide a habitable environment for the crew and to house machinery Remain undetected - Very quiet Work independently of air
SEA PRESSURE INCREASES AS THE SUBMARINE GOES DEEPER. In PSI, pressure is approximately equal to ½ the depth in FEET. At 100ft sea pressure is: 50 PSI In BAR, pressure is approximately equal to 1 / 10 of the depth in METRES. At 30m sea pressure is:3 BAR At a submarines Maximum Operating Depth a submarine is having to withstand pressures of 650 psi or 35 Bar The Problem: :
BASIC SUBMARINE CONSRUCTION
THE STRENGTH OF THE HULL IS INCREASED BY ADDING: T Frames Bulkheads Decks
HULL INSERTS Numerous holes are cut into the pressure hull for access and services,all of which weaken the pressure hull. In order to restore it to its original strength, heavier plating is welded around each opening,these plates are known as:
BUOYANCY POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEUTRAL
MAIN BALLAST TANK
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BUOYANCY Sea water density Salinity Temperature Compressibility Down & Out Up & In
SUBMARINE STABILITY The Centre of Gravity is the point through which the entire weight of the submarine may be said to act. All heavy machinery and weights are placed at the bottom of the submarine to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible,this improves stability.
THE CENTRE OF BUOYANCY: Is the point through which the entire upthrust on the submarine may be said to act
STABILITY Stability is the submarines resistance to heeling forces
OPERATING ZONES NORMAL OPERATING ZONE MAXIMUM EXCURSION DEPTH (20% BELOW DDD) CRUSH ZONE
CONTROL SURFACES Control the submarines Course and Depth FOREPLANES Work in conjunction with the after planes to control pitch and depth AFTERPLANES Work in conjunction with the fore planes to control pitch and depth RUDDER Controls the Heading of the Submarine
BALLISTIC MISSILE SUBMARINE COMPARTMENT LAYOUT MISSILE COMPARTMENT REACTOR COMPARTMENT WEAPONS EMBARKATION HATCH FWD LET/MAIN ACCESS HATCH CONNING TOWER HATCH AFT LET ENGINE ROOM HATCH ACCOMODATION/FOREENDS MACHINERY SPACE MID LET
FIN Integral with the casing is the FIN. It has 3 distinct functions: Supports and houses the masts and periscopes. Provides an elevated platform for conning and navigation. Strengthened for icebreaking and streamlined by shutters.
MASTS & PERISCOPES
SUBMARINE SYSTEMS Water systems Air systems Hydraulic systems Environmental systems Sanitary systems In order to operate efficiently and independently, the submarine needs :
BALLAST SYSTEM The primary function of the Ballast System is to adjust the bodily weight of the submarine.
TRIM SYSTEM The primary function of the trim system is to adjust the horizontal plane of the submarine.
BILGE SYSTEM The primary function of the Bilge System is to collect and store dirty water & other fluids prior to subsequent discharge overboard.
DOMESTIC FRESH WATER The function of the domestic fresh water system is to provide hot and cold fresh water for drinking,domestic and other purposes.
HIGH PRESSURE AIR To supply clean dry bar to: A) Main Ballast Tank blows. B) Charging Emergency Bottle Groups. C) Auxiliary Vent & Blow. D) After Planes in air emergency. E) Reactor Air services.
HP AIR SYSTEMS
HPA HAZARDS Hearing can be impaired Damage to health
HP BLOW SYSTEM To blow the main ballast tanks with 276 bar air to achieve positive buoyancy
HP BLOW SYSTEM
NUCLEAR STEAM RAISING PLANT The pressurised water reactor generates heat to boil water,producing steam to drive the main turbines for propulsion and the turbo generators for electrical generation. The PWR is the submarines main source of power:it uses nuclear fission to generate the heat that is used to produce steam.
REACTOR,SHOWING STEAM GENERATOR
LAYOUT OF A REACTOR COMPARTMENT
The control rods are raised and lowered to maintain the reactor temperature inside a predetermined band A reactor SCRAM is the dropping in of the control rods by the reactor protection system to shut down the reactor and preserve personnel and submarine safety.
ABSOLUTE SAFETY ESSENTIALS COOLING WATER for Decay Heat RemovalELECTRICS for Reactor Instrumentation/Monitoring
Cooling Water Must keep water in the primary circuit Very high integrity system Make up system
ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION The submarine requires a source of electrical power in order to function. To provide this we have a system of generators and interlinking cables and switches.
ELECTRICAL GENERATION Provides a safe reliable source of AC/DC electrical power for: Navigation Weapons systems Heating Lighting Alternative methods of propulsion.
ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION
TURBO GENERATORS The primary method of producing electrical power is two steam- driven Turbo Generators located in the Main Machinery Space(MMS) They produce the main AC electricity at 440V 60 Hz 3 phase.
MAIN BATTERY Provides a high integrity DC electrical supply in the event of a loss of the AC power generating capability
MOTOR GENERATORS M.Gs keep the Main Battery fully charged under normal conditions and in the event of a TG failure they can supply the AC system from the Main Battery
DIESEL GENERATORS There are 2 Diesel Generators fitted that can be used to charge the main battery during normal battery routines and in various machinery breakdown states,e.g. a prolonged reactor scram
SHORE SUPPLIES Shore supplies provide a method of supplying electricity alongside, using cables connected from the jetty to the submarine.
THE PROPULSION SYSTEM The function of the propulsion system is to provide a method of driving the submarine through the water,surfaced or dived,whilst retaining the ability to remain undetected.
MAIN PROPULSION UNIT & SHAFTING
MAIN TURBINES The main turbines convert the steam produced by the NSRP (Nuclear Steam Raising Plant) into rotational movement to drive the gearbox via the clutches.
MAIN GEARBOX The main gearbox transfers the drive from the main turbines to the shaft and reduces the turbine speed at a specific reduction ratio.
EMERGENCY PROPULSION MOTOR (EPM) The EPM provides an alternative method of turning the shaft in the event of a loss of steam or mechanical failure of the turbines and is clutched in or out when required.
SECONDARY PROPULSION MOTOR (SPM) The SPM is used in the event of a main shafting failure or loss of the gearbox, and when manoeuvring in confined waters
EMERGENCY BREATHING SYSTEM To supply clean, breathable, filtered air at 7 bar throughout the submarine when the submarines atmosphere is contaminated.
EMERGENCY BREATHING SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS To supply a liquid at pressure to move heavy and essential items of equipment Quietly Efficiently and Remotely
MAIN HYDRAULICS Fwd hydroplanes Main vents Water tight doors HP Blow valves Masts & Periscopes Hull Valves 6 main uses of Main Hydraulics are :
EXTERNAL HYDRAULICS Anchor windlass Capstans Bowcaps & flap valves Secondary Propulsion Motor 4 Main uses of External Hydraulics are:
AFTER HYDRAULICS Afterplanes Rudder Control After Hydraulics is used exclusively for:
ENVIROMENTAL SYSTEMS Ventilation System Snort Induction System Air purification Air conditioning Sanitary systems
VENTILATION SYSTEM To circulate and distribute air throughout the submarine To provide adequate ventilation of the battery under all conditions. To exhaust stale or contaminated air from the submarine and replace it with fresh. To provide adequate air supplies to run the onboard diesels
SNORT INDUCTION SYSTEM To supply a fan induced supply of fresh air to the ventilation system when the submarine is on the surface or at periscope depth.
AIR PURIFICATION To ensure clean breathable air is provided throughout the submarine & that contaminants are removed.
AIR CONDITIONING To maintain a habitable environment for personnel and ensure suitable cooling is provided for electronic equipment where necessary.
SANITARY SYSTEMS SANITARY, SLOP DRAIN & SEWAGE To provide seawater for flushing the Heads and provide effluent storage prior to subsequent discharge overboard. GASH DISPOSAL To provide a method of discharging gash without surfacing the submarine.
INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS To transfer voice information within the submarine. To provide telephone communication with the shore exchange when in harbour. To keep the crew informed of any emergency or general interest.
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS To transmit and receive information between the command headquarters ashore whilst remaining dived and covert.