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A Submarine is only ever called a: BOAT

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Presentation on theme: "A Submarine is only ever called a: BOAT"— Presentation transcript:

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2 A Submarine is only ever called a: BOAT
HMS TRAFALGAR (SSN) A Submarine is only ever called a: BOAT

3 Naval Terminology Designed to Confuse
SS: Submarine SSN: Submarine (Nuclear Propelled) SSBN: Submarine (Nuclear Propelled with Ballistic Missiles) FF: Frigate DD: Destroyer DDG: Destroyer with Guided Missiles CV: Carrier CVF: Carrier with fixed wing aircraft

4 Classes of SSN (Hunter Killer) 2nd Generation
HMS Swiftsure (S Boats) HMS Sceptre HMS Spartan HMS Splendid HMS Sovereign HMS Superb

5 Classes of SSN (Hunter Killer) 3rd Generation
HMS Trafalgar (T boats) HMS Turbulent HMS Tireless HMS Torbay HMS Trenchant HMS Talent HMS Triumph Astute (A Boats)

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13 Tomahawk Land Attack Missile Fired from HMS Splendid

14 Missile in Flight

15 One Less Command Bunker

16 HMS VANGUARD (SSBN)

17 Classes of SSBN (Bomber)
HMS Vanguard (Trident) HMS Victorious HMS Vengeance HMS Vigilant

18 What Happens Underwater

19 The Trident Missile

20 The Deterrent

21 THE SUBMARINE MUST BE ABLE TO:
Maintain watertight integrity Withstand pressure at depth Remain manoeuvrable Provide a stable platform to carry and fire weapons Provide a habitable environment for the crew and to house machinery Remain undetected - Very quiet Work independently of air

22 SEA PRESSURE INCREASES AS THE SUBMARINE GOES DEEPER.
The Problem:: In PSI, pressure is approximately equal to ½ the depth in FEET. At 100ft sea pressure is: PSI In BAR, pressure is approximately equal to 1/10 of the depth in METRES. At 30m sea pressure is: 3 BAR At a submarine’s Maximum Operating Depth a submarine is having to withstand pressures of 650 psi or 35 Bar

23 BASIC SUBMARINE CONSRUCTION

24 THE STRENGTH OF THE HULL IS INCREASED BY ADDING:
T Frames Bulkheads Decks

25 Numerous holes are cut into the pressure hull for access and services,all of which weaken the pressure hull. In order to restore it to its original strength, heavier plating is welded around each opening,these plates are known as: HULL INSERTS

26 ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

27 BUOYANCY POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEUTRAL

28 BUOYANCY

29 BUOYANCY

30 MAIN BALLAST TANK

31 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BUOYANCY
Sea water density Salinity Temperature Compressibility Down & Out Up & In

32 SUBMARINE STABILITY The Centre of Gravity is the point through which the entire weight of the submarine may be said to act. All heavy machinery and weights are placed at the bottom of the submarine to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible,this improves stability.

33 THE CENTRE OF BUOYANCY:
Is the point through which the entire upthrust on the submarine may be said to act

34 Stability is the submarine’s resistance to heeling forces

35 STABILITY

36 MAXIMUM EXCURSION DEPTH
OPERATING ZONES NORMAL OPERATING ZONE MAXIMUM EXCURSION DEPTH (20% BELOW DDD) CRUSH ZONE

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38 Control the submarine’s Course and Depth
CONTROL SURFACES Control the submarine’s Course and Depth FOREPLANES Work in conjunction with the after planes to control pitch and depth AFTERPLANES Work in conjunction with the fore planes to control pitch and depth RUDDER Controls the Heading of the Submarine

39 HUNTER KILLER COMPARTMENT LAYOUT
FWD ESCAPE WEAPONS EMBARKATION HATCH CONTROL ROOM/ACCOMODATION FWD ESCAPE REACTOR COMPARTMENT CONNING TOWER MANOUVERING ROOM MAIN ACCESS HATCH ENGINE ROOM/MMS AFTER ESCAPE HATCH ENGINE ROOM HATCH

40 BALLISTIC MISSILE SUBMARINE COMPARTMENT LAYOUT
ACCOMODATION/FOREENDS WEAPONS EMBARKATION HATCH MISSILE COMPARTMENT FWD LET/MAIN ACCESS HATCH REACTOR COMPARTMENT CONNING TOWER HATCH MACHINERY SPACE MID LET AFT LET ENGINE ROOM HATCH

41 FIN Integral with the casing is the FIN. It has 3 distinct functions:
Supports and houses the masts and periscopes. Provides an elevated platform for conning and navigation. Strengthened for icebreaking and streamlined by shutters.

42 MASTS & PERISCOPES

43 SUBMARINE SYSTEMS In order to operate efficiently and independently, the submarine needs : Water systems Air systems Hydraulic systems Environmental systems Sanitary systems

44 BALLAST SYSTEM The primary function of the Ballast System is to adjust the bodily weight of the submarine.

45 BALLAST SYSTEM

46 TRIM SYSTEM The primary function of the trim system is to adjust the horizontal plane of the submarine.

47 TRIM SYSTEM

48 BILGE SYSTEM The primary function of the Bilge System is to collect and store dirty water & other fluids prior to subsequent discharge overboard.

49 BILGE SYSTEM

50 DOMESTIC FRESH WATER The function of the domestic fresh water system is to provide hot and cold fresh water for drinking,domestic and other purposes.

51 HIGH PRESSURE AIR To supply clean dry air @276 bar to:
A) Main Ballast Tank blows. B) Charging Emergency Bottle Groups. C) Auxiliary Vent & Blow. D) After Planes in air emergency. E) Reactor Air services.

52 HP AIR SYSTEMS

53 HPA HAZARDS Hearing can be impaired Damage to health

54 HP BLOW SYSTEM To blow the main ballast tanks with
276 bar air to achieve positive buoyancy

55 HP BLOW SYSTEM

56 NUCLEAR STEAM RAISING PLANT
The pressurised water reactor generates heat to boil water,producing steam to drive the main turbines for propulsion and the turbo generators for electrical generation. The PWR is the submarines main source of power:it uses nuclear fission to generate the heat that is used to produce steam.

57 REACTOR,SHOWING STEAM GENERATOR

58 LAYOUT OF A REACTOR COMPARTMENT

59 The control rods are raised and lowered to maintain the reactor temperature inside a predetermined band A reactor SCRAM is the dropping in of the control rods by the reactor protection system to shut down the reactor and preserve personnel and submarine safety.

60 ABSOLUTE SAFETY ESSENTIALS
COOLING WATER for Decay Heat Removal ELECTRICS for Reactor Instrumentation/Monitoring

61 Must keep water in the primary circuit
Cooling Water Must keep water in the primary circuit Very high integrity system Make up system

62 ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION
The submarine requires a source of electrical power in order to function. To provide this we have a system of generators and interlinking cables and switches.

63 ELECTRICAL GENERATION
Provides a safe reliable source of AC/DC electrical power for: Navigation Weapons systems Heating Lighting Alternative methods of propulsion.

64 ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION

65 TURBO GENERATORS The primary method of producing electrical power is two steam-driven Turbo Generators located in the Main Machinery Space(MMS) They produce the main AC electricity at 440V 60 Hz 3 phase.

66 MAIN BATTERY Provides a high integrity DC electrical supply in the event of a loss of the AC power generating capability

67 MOTOR GENERATORS M.G’s keep the Main Battery fully charged under normal conditions and in the event of a TG failure they can supply the AC system from the Main Battery

68 DIESEL GENERATORS There are 2 Diesel Generators fitted that can be used to charge the main battery during normal battery routines and in various machinery breakdown states,e.g. a prolonged reactor scram

69 SHORE SUPPLIES Shore supplies provide a method of supplying electricity alongside, using cables connected from the jetty to the submarine.

70 THE PROPULSION SYSTEM The function of the propulsion system is to provide a method of driving the submarine through the water,surfaced or dived,whilst retaining the ability to remain undetected.

71 MAIN PROPULSION UNIT & SHAFTING

72 MAIN TURBINES The main turbines convert the steam produced by the NSRP (Nuclear Steam Raising Plant) into rotational movement to drive the gearbox via the clutches.

73 MAIN GEARBOX The main gearbox transfers the drive from the main turbines to the shaft and reduces the turbine speed at a specific reduction ratio.

74 EMERGENCY PROPULSION MOTOR (EPM)
The EPM provides an alternative method of turning the shaft in the event of a loss of steam or mechanical failure of the turbines and is clutched in or out when required.

75 SECONDARY PROPULSION MOTOR (SPM)
The SPM is used in the event of a main shafting failure or loss of the gearbox, and when manoeuvring in confined waters

76 EMERGENCY BREATHING SYSTEM
To supply clean, breathable, filtered air at 7 bar throughout the submarine when the submarines atmosphere is contaminated.

77 EMERGENCY BREATHING SYSTEM

78 Quietly Efficiently and Remotely
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS To supply a liquid at pressure to move heavy and essential items of equipment Quietly Efficiently and Remotely

79 6 main uses of Main Hydraulics are :
Fwd hydroplanes Main vents Water tight doors HP Blow valves Masts & Periscopes Hull Valves

80 4 Main uses of External Hydraulics are:
Anchor windlass Capstans Bowcaps & flap valves Secondary Propulsion Motor

81 After Hydraulics is used exclusively for:
Afterplanes Rudder Control

82 ENVIROMENTAL SYSTEMS Ventilation System Snort Induction System
Air purification Air conditioning Sanitary systems

83 VENTILATION SYSTEM To circulate and distribute air throughout the submarine To provide adequate ventilation of the battery under all conditions. To exhaust stale or contaminated air from the submarine and replace it with fresh. To provide adequate air supplies to run the onboard diesels

84 VENTILATION SYSTEM

85 SNORT INDUCTION SYSTEM
To supply a fan induced supply of fresh air to the ventilation system when the submarine is on the surface or at periscope depth.

86 AIR PURIFICATION To ensure clean breathable air is provided throughout the submarine & that contaminants are removed.

87 AIR CONDITIONING To maintain a habitable environment for personnel and ensure suitable cooling is provided for electronic equipment where necessary.

88 SANITARY SYSTEMS SANITARY, SLOP DRAIN & SEWAGE
To provide seawater for flushing the Heads and provide effluent storage prior to subsequent discharge overboard. GASH DISPOSAL To provide a method of discharging gash without surfacing the submarine.

89 INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS
To transfer voice information within the submarine. To provide telephone communication with the shore exchange when in harbour. To keep the crew informed of any emergency or general interest.

90 EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS
To transmit and receive information between the command headquarters ashore whilst remaining dived and covert.

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