21THE SUBMARINE MUST BE ABLE TO: Maintain watertight integrityWithstand pressure at depthRemain manoeuvrableProvide a stable platform to carry and fire weaponsProvide a habitable environment for the crew and to house machineryRemain undetected - Very quietWork independently of air
22SEA PRESSURE INCREASES AS THE SUBMARINE GOES DEEPER. The Problem::In PSI, pressure is approximately equal to ½ the depth in FEET.At 100ft sea pressure is: PSIIn BAR, pressure is approximately equal to 1/10 of the depth in METRES.At 30m sea pressure is: 3 BARAt a submarine’s Maximum Operating Depth a submarine is having to withstand pressures of 650 psi or 35 Bar
24THE STRENGTH OF THE HULL IS INCREASED BY ADDING: T FramesBulkheadsDecks
25Numerous holes are cut into the pressure hull for access and services,all of which weaken the pressure hull. In order to restore it to its original strength, heavier plating is welded around each opening,these plates are known as:HULL INSERTS
31ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BUOYANCY Sea water densitySalinityTemperatureCompressibilityDown & OutUp & In
32SUBMARINE STABILITYThe Centre of Gravity is the point through which the entire weight of the submarine may be said to act.All heavy machinery and weights are placed at the bottom of the submarine to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible,this improves stability.
33THE CENTRE OF BUOYANCY: Is the point through which the entire upthrust on the submarine may be said to act
34Stability is the submarine’s resistance to heeling forces
38Control the submarine’s Course and Depth CONTROL SURFACESControl the submarine’s Course and DepthFOREPLANESWork in conjunction with the after planes to control pitch and depthAFTERPLANESWork in conjunction with the fore planes to control pitch and depthRUDDERControls the Heading of the Submarine
41FIN Integral with the casing is the FIN. It has 3 distinct functions: Supports and houses the masts and periscopes.Provides an elevated platform for conning and navigation.Strengthened for icebreaking and streamlined by shutters.
50DOMESTIC FRESH WATERThe function of the domestic fresh water system is to provide hot and cold fresh water for drinking,domestic and other purposes.
51HIGH PRESSURE AIR To supply clean dry air @276 bar to: A) Main Ballast Tank blows.B) Charging Emergency Bottle Groups.C) Auxiliary Vent & Blow.D) After Planes in air emergency.E) Reactor Air services.
56NUCLEAR STEAM RAISING PLANT The pressurised water reactor generates heat to boil water,producing steam to drive the main turbines for propulsion and the turbo generators for electrical generation.The PWR is the submarines main source of power:it uses nuclear fission to generate the heat that is used to produce steam.
59The control rods are raised and lowered to maintain the reactor temperature inside a predetermined bandA reactor SCRAM is the dropping in of the control rods by the reactor protection system to shut down the reactor and preserve personnel and submarine safety.
65TURBO GENERATORSThe primary method of producing electrical power is two steam-driven Turbo Generators located in the Main Machinery Space(MMS)They produce the main AC electricity at 440V 60 Hz 3 phase.
66MAIN BATTERYProvides a high integrity DC electrical supply in the event of a loss of the AC power generating capability
67MOTOR GENERATORSM.G’s keep the Main Battery fully charged under normal conditions and in the event of a TG failure they can supply the AC system from the Main Battery
68DIESEL GENERATORSThere are 2 Diesel Generators fitted that can be used to charge the main battery during normal battery routines and in various machinery breakdown states,e.g. a prolonged reactor scram
69SHORE SUPPLIESShore supplies provide a method of supplying electricity alongside, using cables connected from the jetty to the submarine.
70THE PROPULSION SYSTEMThe function of the propulsion system is to provide a method of driving the submarine through the water,surfaced or dived,whilst retaining the ability to remain undetected.
72MAIN TURBINESThe main turbines convert the steam produced by the NSRP (Nuclear Steam Raising Plant) into rotational movement to drive the gearbox via the clutches.
73MAIN GEARBOXThe main gearbox transfers the drive from the main turbines to the shaft and reduces the turbine speed at a specific reduction ratio.
74EMERGENCY PROPULSION MOTOR (EPM) The EPM provides an alternative method of turning the shaft in the event of a loss of steam or mechanical failure of the turbines and is clutched in or out when required.
75SECONDARY PROPULSION MOTOR (SPM) The SPM is used in the event of a main shafting failure or loss of the gearbox, and when manoeuvring in confined waters
76EMERGENCY BREATHING SYSTEM To supply clean, breathable, filtered air at 7 bar throughout the submarine when the submarines atmosphere is contaminated.
78Quietly Efficiently and Remotely HYDRAULIC SYSTEMSTo supply a liquid at pressure to move heavy and essential items of equipmentQuietly Efficiently and Remotely
796 main uses of Main Hydraulics are : Fwd hydroplanesMain ventsWater tight doorsHP Blow valvesMasts & PeriscopesHull Valves
804 Main uses of External Hydraulics are: Anchor windlassCapstansBowcaps & flap valvesSecondary Propulsion Motor
81After Hydraulics is used exclusively for: AfterplanesRudder Control
82ENVIROMENTAL SYSTEMS Ventilation System Snort Induction System Air purificationAir conditioningSanitary systems
83VENTILATION SYSTEMTo circulate and distribute air throughout the submarineTo provide adequate ventilation of the battery under all conditions.To exhaust stale or contaminated air from the submarine and replace it with fresh.To provide adequate air supplies to run the onboard diesels
85SNORT INDUCTION SYSTEM To supply a fan induced supply of fresh air to the ventilation system when the submarine is on the surface or at periscope depth.
86AIR PURIFICATIONTo ensure clean breathable air is provided throughout the submarine & that contaminants are removed.
87AIR CONDITIONINGTo maintain a habitable environment for personnel and ensure suitable cooling is provided for electronic equipment where necessary.
88SANITARY SYSTEMS SANITARY, SLOP DRAIN & SEWAGE To provide seawater for flushing the Heads and provide effluent storage prior to subsequent discharge overboard.GASH DISPOSALTo provide a method of discharging gash without surfacing the submarine.
89INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS To transfer voice information within the submarine.To provide telephone communication with the shore exchange when in harbour.To keep the crew informed of any emergency or general interest.
90EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS To transmit and receive information between the command headquarters ashore whilst remaining dived and covert.