3Preparation Of Soups.The making of a soup requires as much skill as any other area of kitchen work. Only ever use fresh ingredients as an insipid, badly seasoned soup without character is a recipe for disaster.For a meal with several courses soup will usually be served first, unless a cold surprise or canapé is offered which will be served before the soup.
4Classification of Soups. Soup is a general term which is applied to every type, whether hot or cold, thick or thin.Many soups can also be served cold and consommé in particular is often served in its cold jellied form.There is some disagreement as to the number of classifications of soup but soups are generally classified as being thickened or unthickened.
5UNTHICKENED. Broth. Consommés. Bouillions. Chowders. Cold*. THICKENED. Bisques.Potages.Velouté.Brown roux based.Cold *.Cold soups can be both thickened and unthickened.
7Broths & Bouillions.Broths: A combination of various types of vegetables which are cooked in a clear stock with the addition of cereal and a garnish of diced meat or poultry. E.g. Scotch Broth.Bouillons: Unclarified but clear stock served plain or with a garnish. E.g. Petite Marmite.
8Consommé.Is a clarified stock of beef, chicken or combination of both.Into the clarification can be added tomatoes, pimentos, beetroot, etc, in order to accent one of these flavours.The garnishes are many and varied. Cheese straws, grated cheese, petits patés are also served under certain conditions.Bortsch is a duck and beef/beetroot flavoured consommé.
10Puree Soups.A purée soup consists of a base of pulse, vegetables or potatoes or a combination of one or more.Vegetables with a high starch content will thicken themselves.Those with low starch content will require an additional thickening agent. EXAMPLE.For example, Purée Crecy (Puree of Carrot).
11Potage.A potage is a soup with a garnish of vegetables which have been cut to a definite shape. It may also include as part of its garnish peas, beans, cereals and Italian pasta.It is made with a good quality white stock thickened with a liaison and finished with a garnish.Shredded, toasted bread and grated parmesan cheese (one or both) are usually served separately.For example Potage Germiny.
12Crème.A cream soup consisting of a base of vegetables (legumes), poultry, veal or game.It is moistened with white stock (veal, poultry or game) but receives its thickening from béchamel or a base white roux.It is finished with cream and served with garnish, usually in keeping with its name.For example cream of asparagus soup, cream of onion soups.
13Velouté.This type of soup is prepared on the same lines as a cream soup, except that it receives its thickening mostly from a velouté sauce or a base blonde roux with the flavour of poultry, veal, fish or game.It differs however in that it must be finished with a liaison of yolks and cream, which gives it the final thickening.For example, Velouté Agnus Sorel (Chicken & Mushroom).
14Bisque.This is a specialised soup always made with shellfish (lobster, shrimps, crayfish, crawfish, crabs).Its thickening is derived from rice or riceflour and is moistened with fish or veal stock.It is finished with butter or a liason of pounded lobster eggs or butter. Brandy and cream are stirred in at the last moment, and the garnish is in keeping with its name.For example Bisque de Homards (Lobster Bisque).
15Brown Roux Based. This is a thick passed soup made from a brown roux. They are garnished with meat and always served hot.E.g. Oxtail soup.
16ChowdersFish soup made from clams. Usually written as ‘Clam Chowder’. Onions, green peppers, celery stalks, smoked bacon thickens with potatoes.Stock comes from the cooking of the clams.Finish with cream. Origin – America. Variations around coast of Boston, Cape Cod, Connecticut and Maine.
17Cold Soups.Certain soups are made to serve cold, others can be served hot or cold.Cold – Gaspacheo, Cucumber, Jellied Consommé.Hot/Cold – Vichysoisse, Watercress, Consommé.Most soups can be served cold.
18Thickening Agents Used in Soups. Roux: White, blonde and brown. 25 – 40 gms of flour to ½ ltr stock.Pulses: High is starch and require no further thickening. 200 gms to 1 ½ ltr of liquid. Lentils require 300 gms.
19Purees: Purees of vegetables provide thickening in a number of soups Purees: Purees of vegetables provide thickening in a number of soups. Vegetables low in starch/high water content will require the addition of extra starch in the form of a roux.Béchamel: A thin béchamel may be used in a number of cream soups.Liaison: this has 2 purposes, it will thicken and also enrich the soup.
20Accompaniments. Sippets for purees and roux based. Finely grated parmesan cheese for bouillons and Italian soups.Toasted croutes for soups served in marmite pots.Cheese straws with turtle soup.
21Garnishes. Vegetable garnishes, good quality precise cuts. Meat garnishes added to clear or broths.Coarsely chopped herbs to broths.Pluches of herbs for consommés and broths.