Presentation on theme: "GCSE Punctuation1. 2 Welcome to GCSE Punctuation Dont worry if you are not a GCSE English student. This presentation is for anyone who wants to check."— Presentation transcript:
2 Welcome to GCSE Punctuation Dont worry if you are not a GCSE English student. This presentation is for anyone who wants to check out the basics of punctuation. A click on the left mouse button will take you from slide to slide (use the up arrow on the key board if you want to go back).
GCSE Punctuation3 If you come to a slide with a dark green background it means there is an activity to complete on the accompanying worksheet - a coloured pen would be useful for this. The answers then follow. There are 70 slides in all, so dont expect to finish in one session – take your time. Here we go then…
GCSE Punctuation4 Punctuation consists of written marks which are primarily used to make clear to the reader how sentences are constructed.
GCSE Punctuation5 Without punctuation, a piece of writing can be very confusing. As you can see below: I wake between 5 and 6am its already busy outside from my window I see the men collect the rubbish I check the weather by looking to see if people are carrying umbrellas
GCSE Punctuation6 Just putting in full stops at the end of a sentence and capital letters at the beginning makes it much easier to read: I wake between 5 and 6am. Its already busy outside. From my window I see the men collect the rubbish. I check the weather by looking to see if people are carrying umbrellas.
GCSE Punctuation7 So, you must think carefully about where your sentences should end and remember to put in a
GCSE Punctuation8 ACTIVITY 1 Practice putting full stops and capital letters in this passage: I rarely have lunch occasionally, if I happen to be at home with my wife, we sometimes go to a restaurant afterwards we always walk along the sea front when Im working, though, its usually just a matter of drinking some orange juice
GCSE Punctuation9 Answer I rarely have lunch. Occasionally, if I happen to be at home with my wife, we sometimes go to a restaurant. Afterwards we always walk along the sea front. When Im working, though, its usually just a matter of drinking some orange juice.
GCSE Punctuation10 Some sentences are questions, of course, so instead of a full stop, need a question mark (?): Are you feeling lucky today?
GCSE Punctuation11 ACTIVITY 2 If the sentences which follow are questions, put a question mark after them. If not put a full stop: Have you got the time, please There is no additional charge Will you be seeing your uncle today One of the players was sent off
GCSE Punctuation12 Answers Have you got the time, please? There is no additional charge. Will you be seeing your uncle today? One of the players was sent off.
GCSE Punctuation13 Occasionally sentences express (or exclaim) strong feelings, so an exclamation mark (!) is needed instead of a full stop: I dont believe it!
GCSE Punctuation14 ACTIVITY 3 If the following sentences seem to express strong emotion put an exclamation mark after them. If not put a full stop: I think Ill have a cup of tea now Hes the greatest player theres ever been Look out, its falling Im going to speak to Rodney about it
GCSE Punctuation15 Answers I think Ill have a cup of tea now. Hes the greatest player theres ever been! Look out, its falling! Im going to speak to Rodney about it.
GCSE Punctuation16 Notice how you, as a writer, have to choose whether or not you want your sentence to express strong feelings. So punctuation is your choice to some extent. It is part of the meaning you want to get across to your reader.
GCSE Punctuation17 Sentences can have lots of different parts to them, so sometimes it is helpful to the reader to indicate where the parts begin and end. This is what we mainly use commas (,) for.
GCSE Punctuation18 For example, the sentence below has two main parts and it is helpful to place a comma between them: After they had finished shopping, they decided to see a film
GCSE Punctuation19 This next sentence also has two parts, but as they are joined by an and, no comma is needed: They finished shopping and decided to see a film.
GCSE Punctuation20 ACTIVITY 4 This sentence has a 2 nd part squashed into the middle of the 1st part, so some commas could probably help make it clearer. Where would you put them? The retired cricketer who was still fond of the game decided to become an umpire.
GCSE Punctuation21 Answer The retired cricketer, who was fond of cricket, decided to become an umpire.
GCSE Punctuation22 ACTIVITY 5 One of the following sentences probably doesnt need any commas. The other does. Put commas in the one that does: Though it had been raining all morning they had no intention of staying there even if it meant getting soaked. Many of the points I am about to make will be perfectly obvious to most of you here today.
GCSE Punctuation23 Answers Though it had been raining all morning, they had no intention of staying there, even if it meant getting soaked. Many of the points I am about to make will be perfectly obvious to most of you here today.
GCSE Punctuation24 Using commas in this way is one of the most important aspects of punctuation. Its all about forming clear sentences. So lets have a bit more practice.
GCSE Punctuation25 ACTIVITY 6 Put commas in the right places in these two sentences: Each day after work when Ive finished tidying up I pour myself a big glass of wine remembering to feed the cat first then relax in a hot bath. Michael walked to the restaurant found a table ordered a starter and carefully loaded his gun.
GCSE Punctuation26 Answers Each day after work, when Ive finished tidying up, I pour myself a big glass of wine, remembering to feed the cat first, then relax in a hot bath. Michael walked to the restaurant, found a table, ordered a starter and carefully loaded his gun.
GCSE Punctuation27 Now, I hope youve not been flicking through these slides too quickly! Remember theres a test at the end. Take your time.
GCSE Punctuation28 Lets review what weve learnt: Punctuation marks are used to guide the reader about the meaning of sentences and how they are constructed. Remember to finish each sentence with a full stop. Or with question marks or exclamation marks if they are that sort of sentence. Commas are used to make clear the different parts of a sentence.
GCSE Punctuation29 Here are some other things you can use commas for: To mark off the words in a list (eg He bought a plate, a spoon, a cup and a knife). To separate the names of people from the rest of the sentence (eg Where are you going, Michael?). To separate extra bits of description from the rest of a sentence (eg Mary, a maths student, was weak at algebra.)
GCSE Punctuation30 ACTIVITY 7 Put the necessary commas into this sentence: On a bright sunny afternoon in March 1959 Robert Foster a young scientist nearly killed himself by holding his breath underwater for thirteen minutes forty two and a half seconds a world record which still stands.
GCSE Punctuation31 How did you get on with that one? You needed to separate out the describing words (bright, sunny,) put commas around the guys name and around the description of him as a young scientist, and then make all those minutes and seconds clear – so it should look more or less like this:
GCSE Punctuation32 Answer On a bright, sunny, afternoon in March 1959, Robert Foster, a young scientist, nearly killed himself by holding his breath underwater for thirteen minutes, forty two and a half seconds, a world record which still stands.
GCSE Punctuation33 ACTIVITY 8 Heres one more to try: From my desk which is placed under the window I can see the railway lines a car park several lines of flapping multicoloured washing and a distant church tower.
GCSE Punctuation34 Answer From my desk, which is placed under the window, I can see the railway lines, a car park, several lines of flapping, multicoloured, washing and a distant church tower.
GCSE Punctuation35 Youre doing very well. Weve got to look at semi-colons, colons and brackets, and then weve nearly finished!
GCSE Punctuation36 Sometimes you want a stronger break in a sentence than a comma, but you dont want a full stop. This is where the semi-colon (;) comes in useful.
GCSE Punctuation37 For example, this is two sentences: Michael knew he would be in big trouble. Later that day his fears were confirmed.
GCSE Punctuation38 But the ideas are so closely related it would be better to put them into the same sentence. A comma would be too weak a break. A semi-colon is just the job: Michael knew he would be in big trouble; later that day his fears were confirmed.
GCSE Punctuation39 So remember: Comma = weak break Semi-colon = stronger break Full stop = strongest break
GCSE Punctuation40 ACTIVITY 9 One of these sentences needs a semi- colon, the other just needs a comma. Which is which? After leaving the class Ray chatted to Jackie You go if you want to Im certainly not going!
GCSE Punctuation41 Answer After leaving the class, Ray chatted to Jackie You go if you want to; Im certainly not going!
GCSE Punctuation42 Semi-colons can be very useful in sentences where there are lots of commas. As you see below, such sentences can look confusing: The students essay was said to be poorly structured, with no clear beginning or end, lacking in consistent punctuation, clumsy, vague and misguided in meaning, altogether, not very good.
GCSE Punctuation43 Can you see how some parts of the sentence needed stronger breaks than others? Using semi-colons for those parts can make it much clearer The students essay was said to be poorly structured, with no clear beginning or end; lacking in consistent punctuation; clumsy, vague and misguided in meaning; altogether, not very good.
GCSE Punctuation44 ACTIVITY 10 This sentence needs both commas and semi-colons. Use the latter where a stronger break is needed. Some of the men wore jackets ties and smart shoes others wore denims t-shirts and trainers only Bob was dressed appropriately.
GCSE Punctuation45 Answer Some of the men wore jackets, ties and smart shoes; others wore denims, t-shirts and trainers; only Bob was dressed appropriately.
GCSE Punctuation46 Semi-colons can also be useful when you want to highlight an important part of a sentence. They put a stronger break before it: He opened the box, looked at the ticking clock, realised it was a bomb; then he ran like hell!
GCSE Punctuation47 Dont worry too much about colons (:). They are just used to introduce lists or explanations: Youll need these things: a hammer, a large brown bag and a pot of glue. Ill tell you why: because youre hopeless!
GCSE Punctuation48 ACTIVITY 11 One of these sentences needs a colon, the other needs a semi–colon. They returned hurriedly from London next day they would start afresh. There is only one reason why boys do better in school than girls theyre cleverer!
GCSE Punctuation49 Answers They returned hurriedly from London; next day they would start afresh. There is only one reason why boys do better in school than girls: theyre cleverer!
GCSE Punctuation50 You may remember that when we add a bit of extra information into a sentence, we put commas around it: Michael, who was the tallest boy in the class, was asked to help paint the ceiling
GCSE Punctuation51 Well, some kinds of writing like reports, notes and manuals have to pack in an awful lot of extra information. This is where brackets ( ) can be very useful to keep everything nice and clear: Wordsworth (born 1770, died 1850) was the oldest of the Romantic poets.
GCSE Punctuation52 You can see in that last example how the brackets really help the eye of the reader to separate out the bit which is additional to the main part of the sentence. Commas wouldnt have been strong enough, as you can see: Wordsworth, born 1770, died 1850, was the oldest of the Romantic poets.
GCSE Punctuation53 If brackets seem a bit too strong but commas not strong enough, then you could use dashes (-) : Janet – having finished her exams – flew to Spain for a holiday.
GCSE Punctuation54 Dashes can also be used to tag on information at the end of a sentence (but try not to use them where commas or other punctuation marks would normally be used): She won the cup again this year – would you believe it?
GCSE Punctuation56 ACTIVITY 12 In the following examples the extra information is underlined. Decide whether to use commas, dashes or brackets: Theres no way even if you paid a million pounds that Im doing that! John Major the last Tory PM loved cricket. Biggleswade 3 miles from Gracton and 2 miles from Hebbley is not an easy place to reach.
GCSE Punctuation57 Answers Theres no way - even if you paid a million pounds - that Im doing that! John Major, the last Tory PM, loved cricket. Biggleswade (3 miles from Gracton and 2 miles from Hebbley) is not an easy place to reach.
GCSE Punctuation58 Lets review what weve learnt: Semi-colons are used where a stronger break than a comma is required. Colons introduce lists or explanations. Dashes and brackets are used to place additional information into sentences.
GCSE Punctuation59 And so we come to the dreaded…
GCSE Punctuation60 Oh, stop panicking - its not that bad!
GCSE Punctuation61 An apostrophe looks like a comma, but its up in the air and it comes before an s like this: s
GCSE Punctuation62 And you use it at the end of words which have something belonging to them. So Susan football becomes: Susans football
GCSE Punctuation63 ACTIVITY 13 Put an apostrophe and an s on the end of any words which need them in these sentences: He went to Nick house to get the keys. The car tyres were dangerously worn. Angela friend had feelings for Nick brother.
GCSE Punctuation64 Answers He went to Nicks house to get the keys. The cars tyres were dangerously worn. Angelas friend had feelings for Nicks brother.
GCSE Punctuation65 You see that wasnt so bad. Admittedly, though, there is a small complication – what happens if the word already ends in s?
GCSE Punctuation66 Well, then you still add the apostrophe, but not the 2 nd s. So, if theres a bloke called John Keats and he writes some poems, then its: John Keats poems not John Keatss poems
GCSE Punctuation67 ACTIVITY14 Put an apostrophe or apostrophe s where needed in these sentences: The six girls dresses each had a ribbon attached. All of Alice friends mothers went to the party. John Keats borrowed his friends pen.
GCSE Punctuation68 Answers The six girls dresses had a ribbon attached. All of Alices friends mothers went to the party. John Keats borrowed his friends pen.
GCSE Punctuation69 By the way, you also use apostrophes when you squash words together and miss out letters. Like this: You are = youre It is = its They are = theyre
GCSE Punctuation70 Youve finished! Now go and pass that test. You know you can do it.
GCSE Punctuation71 The sun has set on your punctuation course. Best wishes.
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