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Chapter II Evolving Management Approaches and Behavioral Management.

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1 Chapter II Evolving Management Approaches and Behavioral Management

2 Preface Even diverse fields and management thoughts are integrated in Management Innovation and Organization Development, Behavioral Management Thoughts are one of those that play key roles, especially teamwork and behaviors, in both fields. Also, some contemporary thoughts and theories contribute to shape them up and build over the rusty management orthodoxies as well.

3 Objectives After studying the chapter, students should be able to.. Describe evolution of management approaches and list the major phrase of such approaches and theories Explain how the behavioral management theories is so important to management innovation and organization development Explain what Mary Parker Follett’s management thoughts yield on the fields of management innovation and organization development Explain the roles of behavioral management theories in the fields of management innovation and organization development

4 Evolution of Management Theory : contributions of thought to Management Innovation & Organization Development

5 Job Specialization Adam Smith ( ) Realized that job specialization resulted in much higher efficiency and productivity Breaking down the total job allowed for the division of labor in which workers became very skilled at their specific tasks.

6 Job Specialization

7 Scientific Management Characterized by a worker-task relationship, with efficiency as its primary goal Associated with the industrial era in Europe and the U.S. Defined by Fredrick W. Taylor ( )

8 Taylor’s Principles: 1.Study the way workers perform tasks and experiment with ways of improving them 2.Determine rules and SOPs that govern task performance 3.Select and train (according to the rules) the worker for the task 4.Establish a performance standard, and develop a pay system that rewards above- standard performance

9 How were these applied? What were some side-effects? Managers didn’t always reward increased output Jobs became dull or stressful Increased turnover Workers restricted output (sandbagging)

10 Followers of Taylor Frank ( ) and Lillian ( ) Gilbreth Time-and-motion study Also studied job fatigue

11 Administrative Management Theory Concerned with how to design the organizational structure for high efficiency and effectiveness

12 Max Weber ( ): Principles of Bureaucracy 1.Manager’s formal authority derives from his position 2.People should occupy positions because of performance, not social standing 3.Each person’s formal authority and responsibilities should be clearly specified 4.Positions should be arranged hierarchically 5.Managers should create a well-defined system of rules, SOPs, and norms

13 Henri Fayol ( ) Principles of Management Division of labor Authority and responsibility Unity of command Line of authority Centralization Unity of direction Equity Order Initiative Discipline Remuneration of personnel Stability of tenure of personnel Subordination of personal interest Esprit de corps

14 Behavioral Management Theory Mary Parker Follett ( ) “Authority should go with knowledge” First advocate of empowerment, self- managed teams

15 Behavioral Management Theory Hawthorne studies Human relations movement The workings of the informal organization (norms) Organizational behavior

16 Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor ( ) Theory X/ Theory Y Believed that one or the other assumption tended to drive managerial behavior in a particular organization What are examples?

17 Theory X and Theory Y

18 Management Science Theory Generally, a quantitative approach Quantitative management (modeling, simulation, queuing theory) Operations management (production) Total quality management (TQM) Management Information Systems (MIS)

19 Organizational Environment Theory (1960s) : Open Systems View

20 Closed System System that operates as though it is self- contained Likely to experience entropy and disintegrate

21 Contingency Theory The idea that the organizational structures and control systems are contingent on characteristics of the external environment

22 Contingency Theory Mechanistic structures: Central authority Clear tasks and rules Close supervision Organic structures: Decentralized More authority to middle and line managers More cross-functioning and empowerment

23 Contingency Theory The idea that the organizational structures and control systems are contingent on characteristics of the external environment

24 Thoughts of ContributionManagement Innovation Behavioral Management Thought Mary Parker Follett ( ) “Authority should go with knowledge” First advocate of empowerment, self- managed teams Management Science Theories Quantitative Approaches; TQM Organization Environment Theory Close systems Contingency Theory Organizational theory, design, and changes Commitment to a big management problem Novel principles that illuminate new approaches A deconstruction of management orthodoxies Analogies from a typical organizations that redefine what’s possible. Thoughts of ContributionOrganizational Development Behavioral Management Thoughts M.P. Follett’s thought Hawthorne studies Human relations movement The workings of the informal organization (norms) Organizational behavior Application of behavioral science techniques to improve an organization’s health and effectiveness through its ability to cope with environmental changes, improve internal relationships, and increase learning and problem- solving capabilities


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