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© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-1 Chapter 1 Management History
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-2 Definition of Management The attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through: Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling of organizational resources.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-3 Ex 1.1 The Process of Management Planning Leading Resources Controlling Organizing Performance Human Financial Raw Materials Technological Information Attain goals Products Services Efficiency Effectiveness Use influence to motivate employees Select goals and ways to attain them Assign responsibility for task accomplishment Monitor activities and make corrections
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-4 Where did these definitions come from? We didn’t just begin with a complicated definition of management. What are the origins of our thinking about management? “A historical perspective on management provides a context in which to interpret current opportunities and problems” p. 28
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-5 Management & Organization Social Forces … values, needs, and standards of behavior. Political Forces … influence of political and legal institutions on people & organizations. Economic Forces … forces that affect the availability, production, & distribution of a society’s resources.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-6 Ex. 1.7 Management Perspectives Over Time (adapted) Classical Perspective Humanistic Perspective Management Science Perspective Systems Theory Contingency Views Total Quality Management The Learning Organization The Technology-Driven Workplace
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-7 Classical Perspective Emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management. Sought to make organizations efficient.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-8 Classical Perspective Three Subfields 1.Scientific management (Taylor) 2.Bureaucratic Organizations (Weber) 3.Administrative Principles (Fayol)
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-9 Characteristics of Scientific Management General Approach Developed standard method for performing work. Selected workers with appropriate abilities for job. Trained workers in standard method. Supported worker by planning and eliminating interruptions. Provided wage incentives for increased output. Advantages? Disadvantages?
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-10 Elements of Bureaucracy 1. Labor is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsibility. 2. Positions are in hierarchy of authority. 3. Personnel are selected and promoted based on qualifications. 4. Acts and decisions are recorded in writing. 5. Management is separate from ownership. 6. Rules and procedures ensure reliable & predictable behavior. Rules are impersonal and uniformly applied.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-11 In-Class Exercise List 2 organizations that are successful bureaucracies. 1. Which elements of Bureaucracy are used at the organization you listed? 2. Think of organizations that we label “Bureaucracy” – but don’ t mean it in a positive way. What do those organizations do wrong? Where do they fall short in practicing the elements of Bureaucracy as defined by Weber?
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-12 Administrative Principles Contributors to this approach include Henri Fayol & Mark Parker Follet. Focused on the organization rather than the individual. Delineated the management functions of planning, organizing, coordinating (leading) and controlling.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-13 Fayol’s 14 Points Division of work Authority Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination of individual interest for the common good. Remuneration Centralization Scalar Chain Order Equity Stability of tenure of staff. Initiative Esprit de Corps
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-14 Humanistic Perspective Emphasized understanding human behavior. Dealt with needs & attitudes in the workplace. Truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than authoritarian control. Hawthorne Studies brought this perspective to forefront.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-15 The Hawthorn Studies The Hawthorne Studies were conducted from 1927 to 1932 at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago, where Harvard Business School professor Elton Mayo examined productivity and work conditions. The studies grew out of preliminary experiments at the plant from 1924 to 1927 on the effect of light on productivity. Those experiments showed no clear connection between productivity and the amount of illumination but researchers began to wonder what kind of changes would influence output. Experimenter Effect (Hawthorne Effect) & Social Effect. Bank Wiring Room Experiment – ability of group to self- manage and influence org. goals.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-16 Human Resource Perspective Emphasizes understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace. Combines design of job tasks with theories of motivation. Maintains an interest in worker participation. Considers the daily tasks people perform.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-17 Management Science Perspective Emerged after WWII. Distinguished for applications of mathematics and statistics to problem solving. Operations research, Operations Management, Management Information Systems.
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-18 Systems Theory Inputs Systems Theory TransformationOutputs Feedback from the Environment
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-19 Systems Theory Principles of Systems theory applied to business organizations consists of 4 characteristics: Open vs. Closed systems. Which one applies to business? Entropy Synergy Subsystems
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-20 In-Class Exercise McDonald’s as a System. Explain McDonald’s French Fry Process based on Systems Theory: 1. What are the inputs? 2. Describe the transformation process? 3. What are the outputs? 4. What type of feedback might McDonald’s receive from the environment? 5. How might this feedback alter the management decisions about the french fry process in the future? 6. What could happen if McDonald’s management ignores the feedback from the environment and fails to adapt its process?
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-21 Total Quality Management (TQM) Philosophy of managing the entire organization for continuous improvement. Characterized by: 1. Employee involvement 2. Focus on the customer 3. Benchmarking 4. Continuous Improvement Attributed to W. Edwards Deming. Who?
© 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1-22 So Why Does Management History Matter? Do we use Scientific Management today? Where? Why? Do we use Bureaucracy today? Where? Why? Do we use the Human Perspective today? Where? Why? Management science? System theory? TQM? So why does Management History Matter? It’s part of the workplace we will manage TODAY.
Developed by Stephen M.PetersCopyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Two hapter Historical Foundations of the Learning Organization © 2000.
Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.Developed by.
2-1 Chapter 2 The Evolution of Management Theory.
Supplement 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition S1- 1 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.
Chapter 2 The Evolution of Management Thinking. Studying management history helps your conceptual skills Social Forces – influence of culture that guides.
The Evolution of Management Thinking Chapter 2. New Approach to Management Success accrues to those who learn how v To be leaders v To Initiate change.
The Evolution of Management Thinking CHAPTER 2. Copyright © 2008 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Learning Objectives.
History and Evolution of Management Thought. Development of Major Management Theories Pre-classical contri- butions Classical theorists Behavioral approach.
2–1 Management Theories Classical Viewpoint 2.Bureaucratic Management Max Weber (German Sociologist 1864 – 1920) A form of organization characterized by:
MANAGEMENT RICHARD L. DAFT. The Evolution of Management Thinking CHAPTER 2.
© Pearson Education Limited 2015HM-1 Chapter HM A Brief History of Management’s Roots.
1 Principles of Management Week 2 – Management History.
Principles of Management Session. 2 Management Yesterday & Today USMAN SADIQ (Ph.D. Scholar)
HISTORY – Adam Smith Division of Labor or Job Specialization Late 18 th Century Industrial Revolution 1900 – Development of Management Theories.
Contemporary Management NEW ERA OF MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2 Dr. Mohamed Hesham Mansour.
Introduction to Management LECTURE 2: Introduction to Management MGT
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Management History Module BUS 206 Erlan Bakiev, Ph. D. Zirve University Spring 2012.
Copyright ©2015 Pearson Education, Inc.HM-1 Chapter HM A Brief History of Management’s Roots.
HSA 171 CAR. 1436/4/16 Theory: An Explanation of how or why something occurs. Functions of a Theory: ◦ Describe ◦ Explain. ◦ Predict. ◦ Control.
GROUP 1: Caisido, Costes, Stefanowitz, Te. In today’s marketplace, change is rapid and managers are expected to deal with a broad set of issues and needs.
Communication in Organizations By: Elizabeth B. Oliveira.
BY Muhammad Suleman MS (HRM) MBA (HRM) MIT. CHAPTER # 1 BASICS OF Change Management ( THEORIES AND THOUGHTS)
Unit 1: Foundations in Management Classical Management Approaches (Text: p )
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–1 Management History Chapter 2 Management Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter tenth.
Management: Arab World Edition Robbins, Coulter, Sidani, Jamali Chapter 2: Management History Lecturer: [Dr: Naser Al-Khdour]
McGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Two The Evolution of Management Thought.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Higher education King Abdul-Aziz University Faculty of Economics & Administration 10/5/2010HSA 171(BA) COURSE TITLE:
MGT 200 Management Theory n Required Reading: Chapter 2 of textbook Peter Senge Article Meg Wheatly Interview n Today’s Topic: History of Management Theory.
Chapter Two The Development of Management Theory Up to the 20 th century (premodern era) Adam smith’s contribution to the field of management Industrial.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2–1 The Importance of Theory and History Why Theory? –Theory: a conceptual framework for organizing.
1 Chapter 2 History of Management Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd. MGMT Chuck Williams.
Foundations of Management Chapter 2. Classic Theories 1. Scientific Management One best way Efficiency is key Focus on individual workers Taylor, Gilbreath.
General Administrative Theories Henri Fayol & Max Weber.
The Evolution of Management Thinking Chapter 2. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 2 New Approach.
1 Classical Organizational Theory Taken From Educational Administration Concepts & Practices Chapter 1- 2 EDA 6061 Educational Organization and Admin.
ORGANIZATION THEORY THE CLASSICAL APPROACH. Learning Objectives 1.Describe the main features of the Classical approach. 2.Discuss the differences and.
Describe some early management examples Explain the various theories in the classical approach Discuss the development and uses of the behavioral approach.
MH-2 The construction of a single pyramid occupied more than 100,000 workers for 20 years. Who told each worker what to do? Who ensured that there would.
EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT YESTERDAY AND TODAY.
Concept of Management Definition of Management “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups”. “Management.
© Prentice Hall, © Prentice Hall, ObjectivesObjectives 1.An understanding of the classical approach to management 2.An appreciation.
© Classical School Behavioral School Management Science School ©
MODULE 3 MANAGEMENT LEARNING “Good things grow from small foundations” What can we learn from classical management thinking? What is unique about the behavioral.
1 Management Theories (organizations as machines).
POP QUIZ Adam Smith realized that production was being done in one of two ways. What were those? Frederick Taylor said there were 4 principles to the Scientific.
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