5Principles of Management – F.W. Taylor Develop a science for each element of a man’s work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workmen.Cooperate with the men to insure all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science.There is almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between management and workmen.
6Time Study Motion Study Time & Motion Studies: Frank & Lillian GilbrethTime StudyTiming how long it takes good workers to complete each part of their jobs.Motion StudyBreaking each task into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive.
714 Principles of Management – Henry Fayol 1. Division of Work: allows for job specialization. Workshould be divided among individuals and groups.2. Authority and Responsibility: Authority right togive orders. Responsibility involves being answerableWhoever assumes authority assumes responsibility3. Discipline: Common efforts of workers. Penalties4. Unity of Command: Employees should have onlyone boss.5. Unity of Direction: A single plan of action to guidethe organization.6. Subordination of individual interests to thegeneral interests of organization
814 Principles of Management – Henry Fayol 7. Remuneration: An equitable uniform paymentsystem that motivates and contribute to success.8. Centralization: The degree to which authority restsat the top of the organization.9. Scalar Chain: Chain like authority scale.10. Order: The arrangement of employees where theywill be of the most value to the organization.11. Equity: The provision of justice and fair dealing12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel13. Initiative14. Esprit de corps: Harmony, general good feelingamong employees
13ControllingMonitoring progress towards goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed
14Levels and Areas of Management MarketingAdministrationOtherHuman resourcesOperationsFinanceMiddle managersAreas of ManagementLevels of ManagementFirst-line managersTop managers
15Role of Top Managers Creating a context for change Developing commitment and ownership in employeesCreating a positive organizational culture through language and actionMonitoring their business environments
16What Middle Managers Do? Plan and allocate resources to meet objectivesCoordinate and link groups, departments, and divisionsMonitor and manage the performance of subunits and managers who report to themImplement changes or strategies generated by top managers
17Responsibilities of First-Line Managers Manage the performance of entry-level employeesEncourage, monitor, and reward the performance of workersTeach entry-level employees how to dotheir jobsMake detailed schedules and operatingplans
18Managerial Roles Interpersonal Informational Decisional Figurehead LeaderLiaisonMonitorDisseminatorSpokespersonEntrepreneurDisturbance HandlerResource AllocatorNegotiatorAdapted from Exhibit 1.4H. Mintzberg, “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact:.” Harvard Business Review, July-August 1975.
19Managerial Skills Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills Motivation toManage
21History: Schools of Management Thought (start) Quality ViewpointContingency ViewpointSystems ViewpointBehavioral ViewpointTraditional Viewpoint19001910192019301940195019601970198019902000
22Goals: Efficiency Consistency Traditional ViewpointAdministrative ManagementBureaucratic ManagementGoals: Efficiency ConsistencyScientific Management
23Characteristics of Bureaucratic Management Rules—formal guidelines for the behavior of employees on the jobImpersonality—employees are evaluated according to rules and objective dataDivision of Labor—splitting work into specialized positions
25Administrative Management Fourteen Principles of Management given byHenry Fayol
26What is Behavioral Viewpoint Focuses on dealing effectively with the human aspects of organizationsStarted in the 1930’sEmphasis on working conditionsWorkers wanted respectWorkers formed unions to bargain with management
29Lower Costs and Higher Market Share Quality Approach:PositiveCompanyImageLower Costs and Higher Market ShareDecreasedProduct LiabilityQuality
30Islamic Management Perspective: 1. Work is an act of Worship2. Work as Trust – Amana3. Discipline4. Reliance on Own Self5. Proper placement depending upon Skills & Talent6. Fairness and Proper Treatment of Employees7. Quality – Itqan8. Consultative and decision making skills – Shura