Presentation on theme: "Getting students to think Cesar Klauer Links 4th Workshop for English Teachers Colegio Trener 27 Sept., 2003."— Presentation transcript:
Getting students to think Cesar Klauer Links 4th Workshop for English Teachers Colegio Trener 27 Sept., 2003
Presentation scheme Introduction Characteristics of creative/ critical language learners Bloom`s taxonomy and critical thinking Promoting thinking Sample activities Bibliography and Internet resources
Introduction ELT has a new challenge: enabling students for their future lives Interest in learner autonomy; how languages are better learned/ acquired; what makes a “good” language learner; how can better learning be fostered Preliminary results of research into thinking skills, learning strategies and learning styles.
Characteristics of creative/ critical language learners From different sources – Kabilan 2000 Creative and critical language learners carry out tasks effectively Identify/ cite reasons for opinions/ answers Carefully / deliberately suspend, reject or accept judgement Use ellaborate, intricate and complex thinking patterns Combine responses and ideas in new ways Correct themselves and others` methods and procedures Adapt to constraints, special limitations, irregular circumstances, regularities, uniformities and overgeneralizations
Knowledge showing previously learned material Student recalls facts, terms, basic concepts and answers List Name Recognize Choose Label Relate Tell Recall Match Define
Useful questions: What is... ? Where is... ? How / when did X happen? How would you describe X? Can you list... ?
Comprehension demonstrating understanding Student organizes, compares, translates, gives descriptions and states main ideas. Compare Describe Outline Organize Classify Explain Rephrase Show Relate Identify
Useful questions: How would you classify...? How would you compare...? What can you say about...? What is the main idea...? What facts or ideas show...?
Application solving problems Student applies acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way. Apply Construct Model Use Practice Dramatize Restructure Simulate Translate Experiment
Useful questions: How would you use...? How would you organize X to show Y? What would result if... ? What questions would you ask
Analysis examining and breaking information into parts Student identifies motives or causes, makes inferences and finds evidence to support generalizations. Analyze Diagram Classify Contrast Sequence Simplify Summarize Relate to Categorize Differentiate
Useful questions: How is X related to Y? What is the topic... ? What conclussions can you draw...? What evidence can you find...? Why do you think...?
Synthesis compiling information together Student combines elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions Compose Design Develop Propose Adapt Elaborate Formulate Originate Solve Invent
Useful questions: What changes would you make to...? What way would you design...? Can you predict the outcome of... ? How would you improve... ?
Evaluation presenting and defending opinions Student makes judgements about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Judge Rank Rate Evaluate Recommend Defend Justify Prioritize Support Prove
Useful questions: Do you agree with... ? What is your opinion...? How would you compare...? What would you recommend...?
Promoting thinking Let´s look at these two pictures What will happen… What happened...? How can you describe...? Let´s read this problem Let´s compare these two pictures What do you predict will happen What conclussions can you draw? What evidence do you have Let´s analyse this problem
Promoting thinking-2 Learners say: I don´t know how to answer this question. I am ready to begin. I like ….. I finished. Teachers say: What can you do to get started? Describe your plan of action. What criteria are you using… How do you know you´re right?
Sample activity 1 Correct – incorrect: present series of sentences for students to analyse and correct if necessary. Apply a “Problem Solving” scheme ( adapted from the “ 3 Steps of Decission Making” – Mirman and Tishman ): 1.Identify the problem 2.Brainstorm possible solutions 3.List pros and cons of each possible solution 4.Decide on the best solution and try it
Example Correct or incorrect? The girl which you talked to me about was at the party yesterday.
Sample activity 2 Guided questioning ( adapted from the Cooperative Learning web page of the Univ.of Chattanooga,Tenn.US) Based on a reading text or lecture students produce questions using a list of question stems.Then,ask their questions in small groups and discuss answers
Sample question stems: What is the main idea of...? What if...? How does...affect...? What is a new example of...? Explain why...? Explain how...? How does this relate to what I've learned before? What conclusions can I draw about...? What is the difference between... and...? How are...and...similar? How would I use...to...? What are the strengths and weaknesses
Sample activity 3 Building categories ( adapted from Potts ) 1.Students are given a list of words 2. They discuss what part of speech the words are. 3. Students justify their answers. 4. They are given a reading text where the words appear in context. 5. They must locate the words and see if their guesses were right and why.
Text Focused listing can be used as a brainstorming technique or as a technique to generate descriptions and definitions for concepts. Focused listing asks the students to generate words to define or describe something. Once students have completed this activity, you can use these lists to facilitate group and class discussion.
Sample activity 4: Goldilocks and the three bears Knowledge – List the items used by Goldilocks while she was in the Bears’ house. Comprehension – Explain why Goldilocks liked Baby Bear’s chair the best. Application – Demonstrate what Goldilocks would use if she came to your house. Analysis – Compare this story to reality. What events could not really happen. Synthesis – Propose how the story would be different if it were Goldilocks and the Three Fish. Evaluation – Judge whether Goldilocks was good or bad. Defend your opinion.
Sample activity 5 : Litle Red Riding Hood 1.Illustrate the main idea of the story on a poster. 2.Rank the characters from best toworst and explain how you ranked them. 3.Create a new story by placing Red in a modern-day city
What did you think? 1. Application 2. Evaluation 3. Synthesis
Sample activity 6: Little Red Riding Hood 4.Describe what Red did when she first saw the Wolf. 5.Tell what happened to the grandmother in the story. 6.Write out the main events in the story. Cut them apart and sequence them in proper order.
What did you think? 4. Comprehension 5. Knowledge 6. Analysis
Sample activity 7: Three Little Pigs 1.Invent a new ending for the story where the Wolf comes out ahead. 2.Using models, demonstrate which house stood up the best. 3.Describe the materials used to build each home.
What did you think? 1.Synthesis 2.Application 3.Comprehension
Sample activity 8: Three Little Pigs 4.Read the story and list the type of home built by each pig. 5.What is the relationship between the materials used to build each house and what happened to it when the wolf blew on it? 6.Judge the homes from worst to best, according to strength, cost, and building time.
What did you think? 4. Knowledge 5. Analysis 6. Evaluation
Bibliography and Internet resources Cooperative Learning – University of Chattanooga http://www.utc.edu/Units/teaching-resource- center/FacultyDevelopment/CooperativeLearning/#guided http://www.utc.edu/Units/teaching-resource- center/FacultyDevelopment/CooperativeLearning/#guided Creative and Critical thinking in Language Classrooms, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan University Technology MARA – Malasya. The Internet TESL Journal http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kabilan-CritcalThinking.html http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kabilan-CritcalThinking.html Strategies for Teaching Critical Thinking, Bonnie Potts- http://edresearch.org/pare/getvn.asp?v=4&n=3 http://edresearch.org/pare/getvn.asp?v=4&n=3 Teaching Critical Thinking,Sally Reid, Centre for English Language Education – Asia University http://www.asia- u.ac.jp/english/cele/articles/Reid_Critical_Thinking.htmhttp://www.asia- u.ac.jp/english/cele/articles/Reid_Critical_Thinking.htm Learning Disabilities Resource Community http://www.ldrc.ca/ http://www.ldrc.ca/ Bloom´s Taxonomy and Critical Thinking Barbara Fowler - Critical Thinking Acrsos the Curriculum http://www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/longview/ctac/toc.htm http://www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/longview/ctac/toc.htm