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The Pledge of Allegiance

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1 The Pledge of Allegiance
Created By: Cristina Grossu Los Angeles, California

2 United States Flag Code
According to the United States Flag Code, the Pledge of Allegiance reads: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty, and justice for all.

3 History-Timeline Summer 1892: Originally written by Francis Bellamy
October 12, 1982: Pledge first recited in unison in public during the first day of NYC Columbus Day celebrations October 21, 1982: Public school children across country recite pledge 1923: National Flag Conference called to change “my flag” to “the flag of the United States” 1942: Adopted by Congress as official pledge with specified changes 1954: Words “under God” added History-Timeline

4 Francis Bellamy Written in 1892
Published in a September 8th issue of a popular children’s magazine, The Youths Companion Original pledge read: 1982: I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. Event was conceived as a campaign to instill the idea of American nationalism by selling flags to public schools First used in public schools on October 12, 1892 during Columbus Day observances

5 Students swearing the Pledge on Flag Day in 1899
Alterations “My Flag” was changed to “the Flag of the United States of America” in 1923 Changed so new immigrants would not confuse their birth country with the United States Words “of America” were added a year later Students swearing the Pledge on Flag Day in 1899 June 22, 1942: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all

6 Further Alterations 1954: In response to the Communist threat of the times, President Eisenhower encouraged Congress to add the words “under God” “I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”

7 Proper Salute The pledge should be rendered:
“by standing at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men should remove any non-religious headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag, and render the military salute.”

8 I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty, and justice for all.

9 Citations Baer, John. "The Pledge of Allegiance - A Short History." Old Photographs and Postcards of Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and More Web. 25 Oct <http://oldtimeislands.org/pledge/pledge.htm>. Hornback, Brandy. Sailors Pledge Allegiance to the National Ensign during a Memorial Service for Victims of September 11 Held aboard USS Harry S. Truman Photograph. US Navy. US Navy. 11 Sept Web. 25 Oct <http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=2649>. Price, RG. Students Reciting the Pledge of Allegiance in School on Flag Day in Photograph. Fascism Part II: The Rise of American Fascism. 15 May Web. 25 Oct <http://www.rationalrevolution.net/articles/rise_of_american_fascism.htm>. "The Pledge of Allegiance.” Web. 25 Oct <http://


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