Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10, Gender Defining Sex and Gender The Social Construction of Gender Gender Stratification Theories of Gender Gender in Global Perspective Gender."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10, Gender Defining Sex and Gender The Social Construction of Gender Gender Stratification Theories of Gender Gender in Global Perspective Gender and Social Change
Defining Sex and Gender Sex refers to biological identity. Gender refers to learned expectations and behaviors associated with members of each sex. One is born a male or female, but becoming a man or woman is the result of social and cultural expectations.
Gender Socialization Teaches expectations associated with each sex and has an effect on: – Self concept – Social and political attitudes – Perceptions about other people – Feelings about relationships with others
Sources of Gender Socialization Parents Childhood play and games Schools Religion Media Popular Culture
Conforming to Gender Expectations Consequences: Women are denied access to power, influence, achievement, and independence. Men are denied nurturing, emotional, and other-oriented world.
Societies With Gender Equality Sex Differences: Nature or Nurture? Women’s work is central to the economy. Women have access to education. Ideological or religious support for gender inequality is weak.
Societies With Gender Equality Characteristics Men contribute to housework and childcare. Work is not highly sex-segregated. Women have access to formal power and authority.
Women’s Worth: Still Unequal Women who work full-time earn 74% of what men earn. Women with college degrees earned equivalent of men who have some college. In 1999, the median income for women working full time and year round was $23,370 ; for men, it was 37,574.
Explaining the Pay Gap 1. Human capital theory - age, experience, education, marital status and hours worked influence worth in the labor market. 2. Dual labor market theory - women and men earn different amounts because they tend to work in different segments of the labor market.
Explaining the Pay Gap 3. Gender segregation - Most men and women still work in gender segregated occupations. 4. Overt discrimination - White men perpetuate their advantage over women and racial minorities, through labor union practices, legislation, harassment, and intimidation.
Theories of Gender Functionalism - socialization into prescribed roles is the major impetus behind inequality. Conflict theorists - women are disadvantaged by inequalities built into the social structure. Symbolic interaction theory - gender is produced through interaction and interpretations.
Feminist Theory: 4 Frameworks Liberal feminism - gender socialization contributes to inequality because it is through learned customs that inequality is perpetuated. Socialist feminism - the system of capitalism is the origin of women's oppression.
Feminist Theory: 4 Frameworks Radical feminism - patriarchy is the primary cause of women's oppression. Multiracial feminism - developed new avenues of theory for guiding the study of race, class, and gender.
Gender in Global Perspective Women provide much of the cheap labor for products made around the world. Worldwide, women work as much or more than men, and own little of the world’s property. Women are underrepresented in world leadership.
Legislative Changes Legislation can promote change, but cannot guarantee change: The Equal Pay Act of 1963 Civil Rights Bill of 1964 Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972