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Evolving theory for better practice: Preliminary outcomes of a UK Economics and Social.

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1 Evolving theory for better practice: Preliminary outcomes of a UK Economics and Social Research Council seminar series on IPE Sarah HeanBournemouth University, UK Hugh Barr CAIPE Marilyn HammickCAIPE Margaret MiersUniversity of West of England, UK Eloise CarrBournemouth University, UK Martin HindBournemouth University, UK Claire DickinsonNewcastle University, UK Cath OHalloran University of Huddersfield, UK Alan BorthwickUniversity of Southampton, UK Deborah CraddockUniversity of Southampton, UK

2 Current position Antipathy, lack of underpinning in educational and professional practice, where used, lack of clear application Not theory less Evidence from conference (theories of team working, power, relationships between IPL and PBL, clinical micro systems, human systems methodology) Inductive creation of theory and deductive testing of theory (lens) (Paul Batalden) Deductive: –Have turned to other disciplines, mainly sociology, psychology and education, for theories that may have utility in IPE, – e.g. contact theory, social identity theory, activity theory and adult educational theories. –Superabundance of theories of potential use in IPE research. Structure provided by several authors: Clark, 2006, Colyer et al.2006; Barr et al. 2005;

3 Aim of seminar series Consolidation exercise –Develop an overview of the multitude of theory –Compare and contrast theories –Establish consensus on theoretical priorities in future IPE research –Deductive rather than inductive exercise Developmental exercise –Evolve prioritised key theories through discussion of potential application and testing in interprofessional education and research Promotional exercise –Emphasise theoretical underpinnings of IPE and research to improve quality of the research and practice –Improve accessibility and utility of theories for the practitioner (bridge the gap)

4 Networking exercise –Bring together expertise of educators and researchers from range of health and social care (HSC) education and psycho-social disciplines, to create forum through which researchers can debate, share, develop and strengthen research evidence base surrounding IPE Encourage cross fertilisation of ideas, improve communication between practitioners, researchers within health/social care and other disciplines (specifically those of sociology, psychology and education). Encourage new collaborations and networks between HSC and the education, psychology and social science disciplines.

5 3 discussion papers, based on the classification presented by Barr et al. (2005); drew from the theory traditions of: –Education: The application of contemporary learning theories in the field of IPE: behaviourist, constructivist, adult learning theories (Hean, Craddock, OHalloran) –Social psychology: Theories of social identity and the contact hypothesis as applied to IPE (Dickinson and Hind) –Sociology: Key transitions influencing and affecting by interprofessional learning: professional socialisation, workforce transition, interprofessionalism and knowledge: in transition (Miers, Hammick, Borthwick, Carr); Seminar 1 Theoretical perspectives on Interprofessional education: plethora and priorities

6 Seminar format How can we make this a creative process? –Combined format of presentation followed by group work to explore application of theories to educational and professional practice. –Consensus Before –The perspective they bring to IPE (research, educator, practitioner) –What they hoped to learn from seminar –What they felt about theory in IPE –How could IPE theory be developed in future After –Key areas of learning –Theories most useful –Application to personal working context Reflection

7 an academic exercise: –people interested in theory: –want to learn more about theories with which already familiar and consider new theoretical approaches. –to better understand processes within IPE. –want to be involved in developing, prioritising and moving theory forward. a practical exercise: –must have utility, not theory for theorys sake. –theory important to improve educational and professional practice, but not being used sufficiently to underpin educational practices/curriculum development. Enthusiasm for theory limited to interested few. Theory as a political tool: –use theory to defend/effect changes to these practices in the face of entrenched views and/or resistance to change. Issues: –how can theory be applied to help professional practice, educational practice (e.g. developing curricula or research). –Theoretical developments overly focused on academic arena at expense of practice arena. Findings

8 Focus A LOT BUT BAD –overwhelmed with the number of theories imported into the field –need to focus on key theories. Plethora confuse practitioners especially if seen as potentially conflicting. A LOT BUT GOOD – plethora as positive, a potential toolbox or eclectic from which to choose theoretical tools relevant in different contexts. NOT ALOT –Other participants did not recognize overabundance of available theory and felt that they continually used the same theories in their IPE work and needed to broaden their horizons and consider others.

9 Way ahead Review and clarify what is already known about theory in IPE Identify where research/theory gaps currently exist. Clear research objectives/programmes Test the application of key theoretical perspectives. Developing a community able to work together and share their experiences of developing theory and its application The nature of people: open mindedness, interdisciplinary, the ability to embrace complexity Dissemination of these theoretical developments: from grass roots, i.e. teachers in local universities, to international audiences. Development of IPE theory by a few academics in isolation from educationalists and HSC professionals unhelpful. Practitioners and educationalists to move forward in parallel to develop mutual understanding of the nature and usefulness of IPE theory.

10 After…… Not yet possible to identify any key theory that took precedence over others. Prioritisation of particular theories may not be a realistic aim because: –One theory does not fit all contexts (no magic bullet). –Different respondents preferred different theories, based on own interest and familiarity. –Some express a clear preferences; –others found this difficult, finding all theory presented interesting. Enjoyed opportunity to learn more about a diversity of theories available to add to theoretical toolboxes and found the overviews of current theories useful. Theories in which the social context of learning and working is recognised are key. E.g., activity theory and socio-cultural learning took precedence over other learning theories. It is this nature of this component that differentiates interprofessional from uniprofessional learning.

11 Reflections ESRC Funding raises profile of IPE in UK as a field in which rigorous research is required/is taking place Theories not mutually exclusive: Overlap between the sociological, educational and psycho-social perspectives. Not all theories introduced into IPE would or could have been covered in seminar. Limited resources means we need to direct these towards priority areas, their synthesis, comparison and application (see power, team working skills earlier on in conference). There was also a need to connect theory more strongly with policy and political perspectives in future seminars (frame in policy maker speak: John Gilbert). How can theory and future seminars could engage with these conservative and transformative agendas (see Squaring the circle: Hugh Barr).

12 Future seminars Remaining seminars will focusing resources on a few key theories and aiming to explore the value, usefulness and practical application of these theories in greater detail. Need to go beyond the single sentence: our work is underpinned by theory x with no in depth description how. Evidence at conference that some people have very successfully applied and tested, e,g, Paul Batalden: microsystems; Esther Suter, human systems theory underpinning methods of evaluation

13 Seminar TitleDateLocation Seminar 2 Seminar 2 Prioritised theories from sociology and dynamic/social psychology (contact hypothesis; team dynamics) John Carpenter, Ann Scott 27 June 2008 Newcastle University, UK Seminar 3 Seminar 3 Prioritised theories from education (stage theory in interprofessional development; activity theory, CoP and socio cultural learning) Philip Clark, Yrjo Engestrom 5 Dec 2008 University of West of England, UK Symposium Symposium Evolving theory in interprofessional education ?; synthesis; inductive approaches 26 June 2009 Bournemouth, UK

14 Theoretical network: your participation Which ever direction theoretical development takes in the future, clear that sustaining the community of academics and practitioners brought together in the seminar series is essential. We invite international and national colleagues to participate in future seminars of the ESRC series, and events that lead from this, to develop IPE theory that is both rigorous and useful to practice.

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