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Libraries supporting e-Science --- … combining cultures … Pauline Simpson National Oceanography Centre University of Southampton, UK Digital Libraries.

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Presentation on theme: "Libraries supporting e-Science --- … combining cultures … Pauline Simpson National Oceanography Centre University of Southampton, UK Digital Libraries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Libraries supporting e-Science --- … combining cultures … Pauline Simpson National Oceanography Centre University of Southampton, UK Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Tilburg University Aug 2007

2 Overview Not about Libraries supporting research per se e-Science Open Data Digital Repositories and Open Access Vision of joined up research Issues for e-Science Combining cultures, connecting people – New roles for libraries Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

3 Whoo are you? Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Librarian Documentalist Information Specialist Information Scientist Information Manager Information Advisor Data Librarian Computer Specialist Data Manager Data Technician Data Processor Anoraks HYBRID

4 Scientific evolution Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Thousand years ago: Experimental Science Thousand years ago: Experimental Science - description of natural phenomena - description of natural phenomena Last few hundred years: Theoretical Science Last few hundred years: Theoretical Science - Newtons Laws, Maxwells Equations … Last few decades: Computational Science Last few decades: Computational Science - simulation of complex phenomena - simulation of complex phenomena Today: e-Science or Data-centric Science Today: e-Science or Data-centric Science - unify theory, experiment, and simulation - unify theory, experiment, and simulation - requires data exploration and data mining - requires data exploration and data mining (With thanks to Jim Gray) e-Science is a shorthand for a set of technologies to support collaborative networked science HPC and Information Management are key technologies to support this e-Science revolution

5 Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

6 e-Science – not only e-Science - data driven (Natural and Physical Sciences) e-Research (includes e-Science and Arts & Humanities now joining in – ACLS – report 2004 – great opportunity to bring new analytic and interpretive power to humanities and social science) Cyberinfrastructure ( NSF : Revolutionizing science and engineering through CyberInfrastructure, 2003 (Atkins Report) describes the new research environments in which advanced computational, collaborative, data acquisition and management services are available to researchers through high- performance networks … more than just hardware and software, more than bigger computer boxes and wider network wires. It is also a set of supporting services made available to researchers by their home institutions as well as through federations of institutions and national and international disciplinary programs. Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

7 Key elements of e-Infrastructure Research Network International authentication and authorisation OS Middleware Engineering and Software Repository Access to international Data Sets and Publications Portals and Discovery Services Digital Curation and Preservation Remote Access to Large Scale facilities Interoperable Institutional and Thematic Repositories Support for International Standards Tools and Services to support collaboration International Grid Computing Services Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

8 Early Vision of the Grid J.C.R Licklider - The Computer as a Communication Device (1968) predicted the use of computer networks to support communities of common interest and collaboration without regard to location. Foretold of graphical computing, point-and-click interfaces, digital libraries, e- commerce, online banking, and software that would exist on a network and migrate wherever it was needed. Lick had this concept of the intergalactic network which he believed was everybody could use computers anywhere and get at data anywhere in the world. …, but he had the same concept – all of the stuff linked together throughout the world, that you can use a remote computer, get data from a remote computer, or use lots of computers in your job. The vision was really Licks originally. Larry Roberts – Principal Architect of the ARPANET Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

9 1990s The Web Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Tim Berners-Lee developed the Web at CERN as a tool for exchanging information between the partners in physics collaborations It was the international particle physics community who first embraced the Web The first Web Site in the USA was a link to the SLAC Library Catalogue (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) Web has transformed the modern world – science, academia, business and leisure

10 Web+ Scientists developing collaboration technologies that go far beyond the capabilities of the Web – To use remote computing resources – To integrate, federate and analyse information from many disparate, distributed, data resources – To access and control remote experimental equipment Capability to access, move, manipulate and mine data is the central requirement of these new collaborative science applications – Data held in file or database repositories – Data generated by accelerator or telescopes – Data gathered from mobile sensor networks Grid = set of services for sharing computing power and data storage. Use middleware to handle the complex authentication and scheduling, linking together applications, devices and computing resources as seamlessly as possible Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

11 Web 2.0 Web as a platform – Regardless of operating system – open network enables collaboration and communication – serves + involves – Social software all relevant to scientific research File sharing - much used documents, videos, slides Tagging (for later retrieval) Folksonomies (informal ontologies developed by community ) Virtual Worlds eg Second Life - education, conferences Wikis (OpenWetWare), Blogs (Useful Chemistry) etc – Library 2.0 (Web Library) – reinvention of the Library? – Scientific Web? Web invented for sharing scientific communication – relatively few scientists have embraced the potential Barriers: social, psychological, technical New technology, impacts on the way science is practiced : increase in rate of new discoveries and exploitation Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Hannay: CT Quarterly Aug 2007

12 Some e-Science projects Particle Physics – global sharing of data and computation Astronomy – Virtual Observatory for multi-wavelength astrophysics Chemistry – remote control of equipment and electronic logbooks Bioinformatics – data integration, knowledge discovery and workflow Healthcare – sharing normalized mammograms Environment – climate modelling – Undersea sensors Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

13 Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Since September 2003: 61,000 registered participants in 130 countries have… Donated 5,000 years of computer time Completed 33,000 experiments

14 Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 (Hey)

15 Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 (Hey)

16 Data Workbench Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

17 Data Workbench Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

18 The Data Deluge – science is turning to e-Science Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 In next 5 years e-Science projects will produce more scientific data than has been collected in the whole of human history Some normalizations : The Bible = 5 Megabytes Annual refereed papers = 1 Terabyte Library of Congress = 20 Terabytes Internet Archive (1996 – 2002) = 100 Terabytes New high throughput devices, sensors and surveys In terms of bytes - moving beyond giga 10 9 through tera onto peta and onto exabytes (petabyte (PB) = = quadrillion bytes) (Hey)

19 Data-centric 2020 vision resulting from Microsoft Towards 2020 Science (2006) …………….. Nature 440, (23 March 2006) | Data gold-mine Multidisciplinary databases also provide a rich environment for performing science; that is, a scientist may collect new data, combine them with data from other archives, and ultimately deposit the summary data back into a common archive. Many scientists no longer 'do' experiments the old-fashioned way. Instead they 'mine' available databases, looking for new patterns and discoveries, without ever picking up a pipette. For the analysis to be repeatable in 20 years' time requires archiving both data and tools. Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

20 Data Loss e-Science is about improving the use and reuse of research data Huge amounts of research data cease to exist each year. – Hardware, software obsolescence – Represents the loss of expensive intellectual resources; a huge opportunity cost for comparative and longitudinal research Unintentional data loss in the sciences due to: – lack of incentives to maintain them, or due to neglect (benign and otherwise – forget where or what it is! – personal computers, Web sites, blogs, wikis, s, digital photo and film etc. Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

21 Digital Preservation Digital information lasts forever, or five years, whichever comes first Jeff Rothenberg, RAND 2001 Medium Practical Physical Lifetime Av. Time to obsolete Optical (CD 5-59 years 5 years Digital tape 2-30 years 5 years Magnetic disk 5-10 years 5 years Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Preservation

22 Preservation - Trusted Repositories Preservation – UK Digital Curation Centre: advice, tools & services RepInfo Registry – representation information adding meaning to data for preservation – EU CASPAR Integrated Project – EU Task Force on the Permanent Access to the Records of Science –EU projects DPE and PLANETS (leverage library and archive experience) Long-term access: trust, responsibility, policy – Trusted DR Audit Checklist for Certification Draft - Research Libraries Group-NARA Taskforce 2005 Defined criteria under 4 categories – Organisation – Functions, processes & procedures – Designated community & usability – Technologies & technical infrastructure Can these concepts be extended to data repositories? Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

23 Key drivers for e-Science Access to Large Scale Facilities and Data Repositories – eg CERN, EBI, etc Need for production quality, open source versions of open standard GRID middleware – eg. OMI, NMI, C-Omega Imminent date deluge : Particle physics, astronomy, bioinformatics Data Loss/Preservation Open Access movement – Publications AND Data Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

24 Open Data Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 (Lyon)

25 Open Access – Wellcome Trust Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

26 Open Access to Data – European Research Council It is the firm intention of the ERC Scientific Council to issue specific guidelines for the mandatory deposit in open access repositories of research results -- that is, publications, data and primary materials -- obtained thanks to ERC grants, as soon as pertinent repositories become operational. The ERC Scientific Council moreover hopes that research funders across Europe will join forces in establishing common open-access rules and in building European open access repositories that will help make these rules operational. To facilitate this process for EU funded research, it recommends that the European Commission sets up a task force including representatives from the various FP7 programmes … to develop an operational FP7 policy on open access by the end of 2007 … Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

27 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Jan 2004 : Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic, and Social Development Open access to, and unrestricted use of, data promotes scientific progress and facilitates the training of researchers Open access will maximise the value derived from public investments in data collection efforts The risk that undue restrictions on access to and use of research data from public funding could diminish the quality and efficiency of scientific research and innovation Dec 2006 : Recommendation of the Council concerning Access to Research Data from Public Funding – each Member country, to develop policies and good practices related to the accessibility, use and management of research data – + CODATA, ICSU, ICSTI, INASP UNESCO Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

28 Open Access to Data following OA for Publications 1990s – Subject Repositories (high energy physics, economics, mathematics etc). HEP (ArXiv) v.successful Economics (RePEc) - successful Limited success otherwise 1994 Subversive proposal (Harnad) 2000s - Institutional Repositories Powered by Project funding, driven by the Information Community (Libraries) Libraries already supporting e-Science by development of OA digital repositories of research publications – providing global and immediate discovery and access to new research Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

29 Repository Growth Digital Libraries à la Carte Repositories in Over 900/1400 repositories Over 20 Different Software Systems ROAR - Registry of Open Access Repositories Directory of Open Access Repositories(DOAR)

30 Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Digital Repositories – where are we?

31 Repository Landscape Subject - arXiv, Cogprints, RePEc, Institutional – Universities, Research Institutes - Southampton, Glasgow, Nottingham (SHERPA), Max Planck National - DARE (all universities in the Netherlands), Scotland IRIS), National / Subject - OceanDocsAfrica International - Internet Archive Universal, OAIster (Harvester) Regional - White Rose UK Consortia - SHERPA-LEAP (London E-prints Access Project) Funding Agency – NIH (PubMed), Wellcome Trust (UK PubMed ), NERC (NORA) Project - Public Knowledge Project EPrint Archive Conference - 11th Joint Symposium on Neural Computation, May 2004 Personal – Peer to peer Media Type - VCILT Learning Objects Repository, NTDL (Theses), Museum Objects, Exhibitions Publisher – Journal archives Data Repositories - UK Data Archive; World Data Centre System; National Oceanographic Data Center(USA) Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

32 Support - Declarations on Open Access Berlin Declaration in Support of Open Access 2003 ( 50 + signatories) Germany: Fraunhofer Society, Wissenschaftsrat, HRK, Max Planck Society Leibniz Association, Helmholtz Association, German Research Foundation, Deutscher Bibliotheksverband France : CNRS, INSERM Austria : FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds Belgium : Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen) Greece : National Hellenic Research Foundation The IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation India, Australia, China, Africa, USA … Scotland (2005) 16 Universities and Research Orgs Russell Group (UK Universities) 2005 Buenos Aires, British Columbia, Bethesda Statement (2003) Budapest Open Access Initiative Feb 2002 (Soros Open Society Institute) Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

33 Support - Mandates for Open Access Real mandates: – Wellcome Trust – RCUK (Research Councils UK) – Universities – Southampton UK, Minho Portugal, NIT India, CERN … Proposed mandates: public funders – DFG, Germany; FWF, Austria; DARE network; Finland; USA; Sweden (?) – Canada, Australia, India, S.Africa, Ukraine etc NIH: Strengthening now very likely, Require not request CURES Act: 6-month delay to OA permitted but must deposit at acceptance FRPAA: Mandatory deposit: all research funded by the largest agencies Federal Research Public Access ActFederal Research Public Access Act EU : Petition for guaranteed public access to publicly-funded research results, Feb 2007 – Signed by 20,000 individuals, 500 educational, research and cultural organisations Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

34 Open Access Research Repositories - developing There will be many types of repository software and more powerful interoperability protocols such as OAI-ORE (need more than OAI-PMH to enable sharing and reuse) Thematic and Institutional Repositories contain not only full text versions of research papers but also grey literature such as technical reports and theses In addition, repositories in the future will also contain data, images and software Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

35 UK JISC Projects –linking text and data Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Source-to-Output Repositories CITATION, LOCATION, And DEPOSITION IN DISCIPLINE & INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES New JISC Call for data related projects 2007 Exemplar : eBank UK – linking research: data, publications, learning objects … Geospatial data in IRs and issues around reuse

36 More digital repositories more content Publications, working papers, primary data, audiovisual, images Hardware in research labs will automatically deposit experimental data Desktop tools will deposit content Rich data flow between networks of repositories Rich data flows between repositories and other components in information landscape Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

37 Federation of Digital Repositories Global Inter-disciplinary Cross-sectoral Multiple format types Data, publications, images… e-Research Framework Defining common services + domain-specific services + repository services Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 From Andy Powell: fusion layer repository federator repository portal heterogeneous - metadata formats, content formats, identifiers, packaging standards homogeneous - metadata formats, content formats, identifiers, packaging standards Federated repository architecture (joined up research)

38 Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 End to End Management

39 Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 (With thanks to Tony Hey)

40 Issues for e-Science Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Macro and micro issues are similar for both text and data repositories: IPR and Licenses ** Distributed over many researchers Over National boundaries Lack of awareness amongst researchers Cultural roots and resistance to change Funding Policies Standards Interoperability Vocabularies ** Necessary to understand science practices: technical social and communicative structure in order to adapt licensing solutions to the practice of e-Science. Arzberger, P. et al Science – DOI: /science Research Issues: information retrieval, information modelling, ontologies, authentication, systems interoperability, and policy issues associated with providing transparent access to complex data sets

41 Combining Cultures NSF Report Long lived digital data collections – Data scientist - hybrid skills Facilitate collaboration – Multidisciplinary teams: computer scientists, domain scientists, digital library experts, statisticians/modellers – Lessons learnt: e-Science Human Factors Audit Report (to be published 2006?) Roy Kawalsky, Loughborough Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Many of the same research issues that the international digital library community has been grappling with for the past decade.

42 Combining Cultures NSF Report : It is timely to seriously consider the role that digital libraries can and should play in this emerging e-Science computational infrastructure. Bringing the digital library and the emerging scientific infrastructure worlds together can lay the foundation for providing truly integrated support for the entire process of science, from formulation of research questions to the publication of the outcomes. Specifically, the e-Science and digital libraries research communities need to work together to identify the potential contributions of each of these communities for supporting the conduct of science and to articulate a shared research agenda Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

43 Calls for Combining Cultures for e-Science needs – EU Framework 7 – e-Research Infrastructure development – UK – JISC – Report on future requirements for curation and preservation – Australia DEST – e-Infrastructures Reflection Group includes CAUL (Council of Australian University Librarians) member - Interim Report nsult/interim_report.htm nsult/interim_report.htm – UK –CURL/SCONUL Joint e-Research Task Force (2006) – USA – ARL Libraries and Changing Research Practices (2004) Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

44 CURL/SCONUL Joint e-Research Task Force Nov 2006 Digital Libraries à la Carte To raise awareness and understanding of the issues associated with support of e-research in CURL and SCONUL member libraries and to stimulate discussion about them at institutional level. 2.To position CURL and SCONUL member libraries staffs to engage with their local e-research stakeholders and to encourage them to make appropriate inputs at the research proposal stage. 3.To identify skills gaps in relation to support of e-research and to assist member libraries in addressing them. 4.To work with other e-research stakeholders, including the DCC, RLN and BL, to ensure that information management to support e-research is a high priority for future investment by funders. 5.To advise the CURL Board and the SCONUL Executive Board on matters relating to the support of e-research. 6.To monitor, and report on, the Groups progress against an action plan agreed annually by the CURL Board and SCONUL Executive Board. Terms of Reference

45 Has your library engaged with the e-Research agenda? Management of the large datasets is likely area of involvement. Why are libraries not already involved: – Lack of foresight by librarians? – No e-Science funds for development of data management in libraries – no call for projects – No Customer demand for data curation Data curation - whose responsibility, individual, institution, national or international? Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

46 WP 1 - Information and awareness Recruit network of e-research liaison contacts in HE library & information services; establish JISCmail list Survey of e-research activity, e-research support requirements, and e-research support work within HEIs (coordinate with WP2 needs analysis) Survey of the policy and practice of research funders in relation to data curation Disciplinary mapping of existing data curation services and gaps in provision Training & development needs analysis (link with WP1 survey activity on researcher support requirements) Design, commissioning and delivery of training and development events for HEI library & information services staff Maintain awareness of funding and bidding opportunities for the eRTF Lead on bid drafting (with WP1) identify potential case studies/exemplar projects for development with DCC Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 WP 2 - Workforce development WP 3 - Research Intelligence

47 Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Engaging ARL members in the development of new roles for libraries as e- Science infrastructure and service needs emerge at research institutions and promoting the contributions of research libraries in this arena. Identify the skills needed as information professionals move into the emerging e-Science landscape and encouraging the development of information professionals prepared to assume new roles.

48 ARL Workshop Recommendations NSF should fund projects in which university research libraries develop deep archives of irreplaceable data, assuring descriptions of these data at a minimal level (floor, not ceiling) and facilitating discovery and access to these data, according to prevailing community standards NSF should partner with IMLS to train information and library professionals (extant and future) to work more credibly and knowledgably on data curation as members of research teams NSF should foster the training and development of a new workforce in data science Promote new curricula Develop new programs Link to training of domain scientists and information/library scientists Digital Libraries à la Carte ARL Workshop on New Collaborative Relationships Sep 06

49 Shared Goals and Responsibilities NSF – Data Authors Data Managers Data Scientists Data Users Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

50 NSF REPORT NSB-05-40, Long-Lived Digital Data Collections Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

51 Combining cultures, connecting people Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 Librarian Documentalist Information Specialist Information Scientist Information Manager Information Advisor Data Librarian Computer Specialist Data Scientist Data Manager Data Technician Anoraks What is a data scientist? Hybrid

52 Data Scientist New skills requirements: interdisciplinary quantitative data curation Integrate data management within the LIS curriculum Various approaches to develop and obtain digital curation skills Skills are there but often in discrete communities: we need to bring communities together Integration within the curriculum: undergraduate students, library & information science, archival studies, computer science Provide recognition and a career path for emerging data scientists Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007 There must be a blurring of the boundaries between previously well defined silos that existed between information managers and data managers

53 Connecting People – how to Encouraging partnerships - Inter-institutional partnerships Institutional management support Competencies – shared and developed Common issues – authentication, metadata, ontologies, standards, IPR, licenses New curricula - CPE Share experience of Institutional repositories- libraries fundamentally transforming research publication practices and scholarly communication forerunner of e-Science Libraries involved in the research underlying the design of e-Science. Is there new research on Digital Libraries over the Grid Funding Agencies – JISC, NSF, EU etc – define project members from library and data communities – promote the necessary international dialog between communities Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007uuee

54 Role for Libraries in digital data universe Data as primary source material – Libraries : – Will not be primary providers of large scale storage infrastructure required – Will not provide the specialized tools to work with data – Will not provide the detailed information about the data – Unlikely to provide the solutions to digital preservation because of cost Can contribute library practices : Collection policies (appraisal, selection, weeding, destruction etc) Data clean up, normalisation, description and submission to repositories Data Citation Curation and Preservation Collaboration with researchers re scholarly communication,deposit, education and training Innovative discovery and presentation mechanisms Data as part of enhanced publications – Libraries: – Well positioned to define standards for Taxonomies and ontologies (for complex publications that include data) Persistent identifiers Consistent description practices Data structuring conventions Interoperability protocols for searching and retrieval – Well positioned to exploit IR experiences Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

55 Role of Digital Libraries - IRs Institutional repository is a key component of e-infrastructure – Mostly in library domain – Access and preservation – Digitization – data archaeology – Interoperable with departmental, national, subject repositories Data Curation – Creation, metadata, preservation institutional intellectual assets but disparate data types and ontologies Training Provision – Research methods training for researchers Data creation, documentation, management Advocacy, policy setting – Cross disciplinary approach to key issues Expand OA agenda – Interweave e-Research, OA and – Virtual Research Environments Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

56 Roles for Libraries Institutional repositories accept small datasets (size or subject outside remit of Data Repositories). Data deposited in IR until accepted by data repository Development of Regional or Discipline Repositories alongside IRs (singly or consortia). Research libraries a natural home for content curation, (with funding) Mapping of commonalities (eg metadata) across disciplines, maintaining ready interoperability Management of metadata throughout a research project Address conditional and role-based access requirements for scientific data Support e-Science interface functions for local users Adding Value: linking, annotation, visualization Libraries and researchers can add value by creating e-Science Mashups - data needs to be re-used in multiple ways, on multiple occasions and at multiple locations (reuse, remix) Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

57 The mash-up Data from FAO, WHO + Google Earth

58 Role for Libraries – build on the strengths Serving the needs of the scientific community Systematically managing and making accessible information from heterogeneous sources – Metadata, discovery mechanisms, portals, VRE, Science World – Publication and Citation – Selection and use of tools and resources – Digitization of legacy content – access management, copyright, IPR, Licenses – Curation and Preservation advice Provide specialist assistance to end-users – expertise in user services and training Exploit strengths in designing and implementing innovative and useful e-Science information infrastructure. Reduce the risk of "re-inventing the wheel". Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

59 Lyon, Bielefeld Conference Feb 2006 SWOTANALYSISSWOTANALYSIS

60 Facing the future Build Institutional Repositories Develop leadership & vision for e-Research engagement – Web 3.0?, Semantic web - publishing? Review organisational structures – Extend & re-profile the Faculty/Subject/Reference Librarian role? – Closer collaboration with Computing Services, and Data Services? Provide eServices for data – We do e-Learning so why not e-Research? – Include in institutional digital asset management Promote professional development of staff – Awareness-raising activities, new skills – Greater engagement, hybrid roles and hybrid teams Build new partnerships, new business models, new research projects Facilitate Transformational Change in Libraries Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

61 Combining Cultures, Connecting People for e-Science Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

62 Acknowledgements With special thanks to Prof Tony Hey, Vice-President for Technical Computing. Microsoft Corporation, (previously Director of UK e-Science Programme ) Dr Liz Lyon, Director, UKOLN Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

63 Thank You Questions? Pauline Simpson ;

64 Discussion 1.What is the role of libraries in supporting e-research? 2.What are the risks of : getting involved? not getting involved? 3.Should e-research data be held locally or in large-scale repositories? 4.What skills are needed to manage and curate e-research data? to advise researchers on e-research data management? Do we have them? 5.Who pays for the e-research information infrastructure? Digital Libraries à la Carte 2007

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