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Creating and delivering digital collections University of Brighton 9 July 2010 John Hargreaves.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating and delivering digital collections University of Brighton 9 July 2010 John Hargreaves."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating and delivering digital collections University of Brighton 9 July 2010 John Hargreaves

2 JISC Digital Media JISC Digital Media is a JISC funded service set up to provide advice and guidance predominantly to the Further and Higher Education community on the issues of creating, delivering and using still images, moving images and sound resources, together with managing digitisation projects.

3 JISC Digital Medias Services –Web resources –Helpdesk service –Hands-on training –Mailing list –Blog –Online surgeries –Consultancy

4 Content for today: Tasks to undertake in planning a departmental image collection Handling originals Review of key image properties and formats Calibration of monitors File formats Storage and delivery Putting it all together

5 Why build a digital collection? –Expensive –Time consuming –Steep learning curve –Standards not always clear or stable –…

6 Why build a digital collection? –Required for teaching or research –Improve access/ distribution –Publicise resources –Preservation –Generate income –Efficiency (avoid duplication) –Staff development –Attract staff/students –Collaboration –Demand from managers –Demand from users!

7 Planning a Departmental Collection Image courtesy of stock.xchng

8 Why not just get on with it? Our model of just do it is about to do us in. University of Oregon Libraries in RLG DigiNews, December 2005

9 Before you start….

10 Do your homework… –What do your users need? (ask them) –Whats possible? (what are others in similar situations doing?) –What resources do you have? (e.g. existing images, metadata, technologies, skills, budget, time, goodwill… esp. from IT departments) –What about the bigger picture? (e.g. institutional objectives, educational trends, legal context, other collections…)

11 Have a cunning plan… –Set clear and achievable objectives –Get it all down on paper (user requirements, technical specifications, workflow, timetable, budget, marketing, risk analysis, quality plan…) –Involve any stakeholders

12 Particular things to think about… –How important are standards? E.g. image quality, metadata –Do you want to interoperate? Who might you share your collection with? –Should you Do-It-All-Yourself? Outsource all or some of the project? –Copyright!!! Thorough investigation is necessary before starting the project

13 Handling Originals

14 What type of Original? 2D 3D Macroscopic Microscopic Primary source Surrogate

15 Preparation of Originals Prior to digitisation… Consider environment, software and equipment Establish a capture workflow Agree with conservation that objects are in a stable state Ensure objects can be provided at sufficient rate Clean originals

16 Issues to Consider Access Impact of capture conditions Special requirements Fragile Unsafe Awkward Additional resources Added time to workflow

17 How Should your Original be Handled? Is it suitable for being pressed on a flat bed scanner? Is it suitable for disbinding? Slides and photographs should be handled carefully and always by their edges Do not drag materials across scanner glass

18 Outsourcing Capture Maybe more cost effective to outsource the digitisation of large quantities or fragile originals Consultancy –Advise clients how to optimise in-house resources for digitisation projects

19 Digital Images Image courtesy of stock.xchng

20 Resolution –Best to think about absolute number of pixels in your images rather than thinking in terms of dpi – unless scanning or printing. 8 samples 32 samples 128 samples 256 samples Image: JISC Digital Media

21 What Resolution is right? –Depends entirely on context –Digital capture resolution: Scanning large photos at 600 dpi on a flatbed is generous Scanning slides at 600 dpi is insufficient –Digital output resolution: A 600 pixel image might fill much of a laptop screen or PowerPoint slide A 600 pixel image will only be 2 inches long printed at 300dpi

22 An Image Output to a Monitor 6 x 4 inch photo sampled at 100 pixels per inch How big? 600 x 400 pixels How big on screen? Depends on screen size (setting)

23 300 dpi 6 x 4 inch photo sampled at 100 pixels per inch How big? 600 x 400 pixels How big when printed? Image when printed

24 Bit Depth – What you should know –Every pixel is represented by one or more bits –Bits are binary and have only two values 0 or 1 –For a 1-bit image each pixel records either a single0 or a 1. This gives a bitonal image. E.g. 0 = Black and 1 = White –The more the bits you allow for each pixel, the bigger the tonal range (and the bigger the file) –8 bits per pixel will enable 256 possible values, creating the impression of continuous tone (grayscale)

25 Bit Depth – Bitonal to Grayscale 1-bit (2 shades) 2-bit (4 shades) 4-bit (16 shades) 8-bit (1 byte) (256 shades) Images: JISC Digital Media

26 What about colour? 24-bit colour = 8-bits per colour channel (256 shades of Red x 256 Greens x 256 Blues) = 16.8 million potential colours = Images: JISC Digital Media

27 Calibrating your Monitor Monitor Calibration: The process of correcting the colour rendition settings of a monitor to match desired colours of the output device. Away from bright light sources that might reflect off your screen A consistent ambient lighting A neutral environment and a neutral (grey) desktop

28 Calibration Hardware There is a small range of optical hardware available. These devices attach to the screen and read the monitor output They compare measured values from the screen with known values A profile is created and loaded into the OS to compensate for differences

29 Storing and Delivering Your Collection Image courtesy of stock.xchng

30 File Formats –Different formats suit different kinds of images and different tasks: –Established formats: TIFF – high quality, holds 48-bit+ colour, suitable for archiving, not suitable for Web delivery JPEG – compromised quality, holds up to 24-bit colour, ideal for photo-realistic images, Web delivery, care needed when compressing images GIF – simple format, only hold up to 256 colours (8-bit), ideal for graphics with flat colour, Web delivery And newer formats……

31 File Formats –Newer formats RAW and DNG formats – effectively digital negatives JPEG 2000 and PNG formats – next generation JPEG and GIF – suitable as both archiving and delivery formats due to lossless compression and higher bit-depths

32 File Naming –Several different options: Meaningful names (e.g. french_expedition_2005_01.jpg) Unique identifiers (e.g tif) A mix of both (e.g. 05a0001t.gif) Append original names if relevant (e.g. roman_vase_08579.Cr2 or roman_vase_08579_opt.tiff) My own choice (081107_BDICgrp_01392_kilbey.ext) Photograph courtesy of stock.xchng

33 Automating tasks for your collection –Photoshop, Lightroom (and some other programs) will let you batch process large quantities of images –Useful for: Adding common/shared metadata Performing universal edits such as changing file formats

34 What metadata to collect Descriptive/ Discovery metadata e.g. Title, Subject Used for finding resources Admin, technical, preservation metadata e.g.Format, File size Used to create, manage and preserve resources

35 What metadata to collect (cont) Structural and packaging metadata e.g. is part of, Master image locator Used to organise resources Usage and contributed metadata e.g. Published in, Licensed to Used for license purposes

36 What metadata to collect (cont) A Funder might require specific metadata Images for Education

37 Vocabularies Why use them? Ways to control vocabularies

38 Why use controlled vocabularies? Better retrieval Improved cataloguing efficiency and consistency Disambiguate the language e.g. bank Put things in their place e.g. classify, identify relationships Support interoperability and improve cross searching and metadata sharing

39 Ways to control vocabularies Data entry rules Formal subject headings Thesauri Classifications Authority lists (people, places, events) In-house keyword lists Free keywords added by a cataloguer Combination of approaches

40 Storing and Delivering Your Collection Image courtesy of stock.xchng

41 Requirements and Resources –Your choice of a system will be determined by your requirements and resources: What does it need to do? How soon do you need a system? Does your system need to integrate with other systems? How much can you afford to pay? Do you have access to good IT support/ programming? …

42 Low-tech Approaches –Careful file and folder naming –Spreadsheets –Metadata embedded within the image file –Simple folder viewers (e.g. Windows folder view…

43 Low-tech Approaches –Free or cheap to buy – but might prove expensive in terms of time (few productivity features) –Quick and (fairly) easy to implement – though might add time later on (e.g. migrating data to another system) –May be: (a) all you need for now, (b) an interim solution, or (c) something to use alongside other systems

44 Off-the-shelf Solutions –Commercial Image Management Systems Large range of products (Canto Cumulus/Mediadex, Extensis Portfolio, Fotostation, Imatch, Expression Media…) Often deal with more than just images (digital asset management systems – DAMs) Often come in a range of sizes and prices (standalone, server/workgroup, Web publishing…) Usually come from outside education/heritage sectors (e.g. business, photographic market) Image courtesy of stock.xchng

45 Custom Solutions –Get someone to build you a system: Sometimes built using standard database and Web technologies Sometimes proprietary systems tailored to meet your specific needs –Pros and cons: Might be better match for your requirements, but might not offer all the functionality of an off the shelf system at a similar cost Likely to take a lot of time and management Can be issues with documentation, ongoing support and upgrading the system Image courtesy of stock.xchng

46 Using Existing Systems –Manage your departmental collection using another system within your institution: Proprietary library, archive and museum management systems typically now offer image/media modules Repository Systems (e.g. DSpace) Content Management Systems Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) … –Pros and cons: Might solve your problems and open your collection to wider audiences, but likely to be political issues, technical limitations, or compromises Image courtesy of stock.xchng

47 Putting it together Image courtesy of stock.xchng

48 Workflow Useful to list (or draw diagram of) all the steps involved in adding images to your collection Make sure you consider documentation required to support all these steps (e.g. selection criteria, cataloguing notes) Make sure you build quality assurance (QA) checks into the workflow

49 Workflow –JISC Digital Medias sample QA workflow

50 Workflow You should QA both images and metadata (though not necessarily 100%) Make sure youre fully exploiting the technology (e.g. batch processing, metadata templates, automated spell- checking, calibrated monitors…) Dont expect anyone to scan or catalogue 7 hrs a day, 5 days a week…

51 Workflow Artists/Photographers dont necessarily make the best image editors Subject experts dont necessarily make best cataloguers… …nor do librarians Consider how you might also exploit your users (QA, metadata tagging, Web 2.0…)

52 Keep in Touch – Further Support and Guidance Web site: Helpdesk: Mailing list:

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