Presentation on theme: "The Journey Mapping Guidance"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Journey Mapping Guidance Customer journey mapping is the process of tracking and describing all the experiences that customers have as they encounter a service or set of services, taking into account not only what happens to them, but also their responses to their experiences.Allows organisations to understand how customers define and experience services from their own point of viewDefines what needs to be done to simplify a particular areaExposes steps which lie outside government control but which hold part of the solution to streamlining the whole journey…. And so has the potential to drive out efficiencies as well as improving customer experienceIt is part of the wider set of tools that provide insight into customer needs, behaviours and motivations.In terms of service transformation, it is key:It allows an organisation to understand how customers define and experience services from their own point of view, how this varies between different types of people, and thus, where action can be taken to improve delivery.one of the best ways available of understanding what needs to be done to simplify a particular areaAlso exposing those steps which lie outside government control but which hold part of the solution to streamlining the whole journey.So a customer journey approach to joining up services can drive out efficiencies easily as well as improving customer experience.At its best, journey mapping can be truly transformational
2 CUSTOMER JOURNEYS IN GOVERNMENT Many customer journeys dealt with by government cut across departmental boundaries. Journey mapping can be particularly valuable here.INDIVIDUAL JOURNEYSOfsted reportsApplying for schoolPre-school boostersStarting schoolBenefitsTaxesRegistrationName changeGetting marriedApplying for pensionTax on retirement incomeRetiringRegistering deathPensionsNotifying change of circumstancesBereavementMaternity leaveAnte-natal careRegistering birthBenefitsTrust fundBirth or adoptionBUSINESS JOURNEYSHealth & safetyRegistrationHSE inspectionsLocal authority regulationsLegal systemClosing downChanging name, address or statusRedundancy paymentsTax & accountsStarting a businessRegistrationVATFinancingApplying for grantsTax/complianceEnd of year returnsVATAuditing requirementsBy customers we mean anyone – people or businesses, who use either central or local government services.When lookIng across boundaries, journey mapping helps you to see things from the customer viewpoint, cutting across silos and forcing you to think beyond your own priorities or policy agenda.Employing someoneJobcentre PlusPAYENational insurance
3 Many parents/carers abandon their application to Free School Meal because of lack of awareness and the complexity of processes, as illustrated in this customer journey map
4 However, there is an opportunity to transform Free School Meal service delivery by joining up back office processes, creating an online application and making the whole experience for parent/carers effortless. This would encourage a greater take-up of Free School Meal
5 MAPPING THE SYSTEM (PROCESS MAPPING) FREE SCHOOL MEALS EXAMPLESharing what the current process looks likeIdentifying duplications and deviations from the norm – where do things go wrong?Identifying how and where things can be improvedComparing the view of staff with the view of customersTraining – showing how things should be doneObjectives/ scopeMap Free School Meals (FSM) to identify how to deliver a better customer service and achieve cost savingsEnd to end system definitionProcess of making a new application for FSM from becoming eligible through to receiving mealsCustomer segmentAll new applicantsCore system goalsGoal 1:Deliver an important benefit consistently and without delaysGoal 2:Minimise the number of entitled people leaving the process without obtaining the benefitGoal 3:Contribute towards a required 3% efficiency improvement across the councilKEY STEPS IN SYSTEM/CUSTOMER JOURNEYLeaves processLeave processCustomerBecomes eligible/ aware of eligibilityFinds out about FSM and how to applyDo I want to apply?NoCompletes application form (4 routes leading to same process)Receives request for more information/ verificationCan I/ do I want to proceed?NoSends extra information/ verificationReceives confirmation of FSM entitlementChild starts receiving mealsYesYesNoTameside council FSM sectionReceive and check applicationIs all correct info provided?Bring up child’s record and add noteAdd claim dates and authorisationReport sent to school and confirmation to parentThis example is based on the work done in Tameside to review the process for applying for free school meals.This map, re-formatted slightly to fit the standard tool used in the cross-government guidance, reflects the process as it stood when the mapping was first done.YesSchoolReceive report on entitlementProvides mealsNOTES ON PROCESS AND CRITICAL INCIDENTSSometimes can verify internally , sometimes have to go back to the customerWasted materials often associated with this stepWill continue to receive benefit until next review, even if eligibility changesOn-line applications have earlier start date than paper onesFour different routes have very different associated costsApplication rates may vary by area; in some places there’s more stigma attachedCritical momentCritical moment
9 Generating a picture of the customer journey is a valuable way to understand how customers experience public servicesCustomer journey through court: Victims of crimeReporting the crimePolice investigationBefore the trialAfter the trialAt courtPositiveReported crime immediately. Police ‘very good’ – told him what to do and who was coming. Felt secureIdentified attacker – ‘felt good, this will be straightforward’Phone conversations with detective – ‘kept in touch’Gave statement in police car – felt were ‘helping him’Detective gave him background to accused: first offence, had been held since arrest. ‘Felt a bit better’Only communication with detective. Happy to explain situationDrove him home - grateful, but didn’t feel like standard serviceCalled up to identify criminal on computer system seemed ‘efficient’Case submitted to CPS. Unclear where next contact from. Had to ask detectiveJudge asked if he would like to sit – only introductionReceived call from detectiveWould report a crime again, because found out defendant had been held for 5 months. But court experience was a ‘waste of time’Pack from Witness Service. Personal contact became formal. No information about process aheadTold to come back next day. Not a big problemLevel of satisfactionNeutralIdentity parade. No coaching, no reassurance wouldn’t meet attackerIn locked witness room – ‘cut off’Drove around looking for attacker – ‘waste of time’ as in marked carLittle contact with anyone – only detectiveJury is a ‘sea of faces’Had to go to the detective – ‘foreign territory’. Police station ‘disconcerting’Worried attacker could come to houseGave formal statement. Worried whether justice would be done. Detective seemed ‘dim’. Changed the statement into his own wordsFew days before trial, still no information on processFood terrible – had to go outCalled Witness Service as wanted to speak to barrister. Told to arrive early on the day. Seemed ‘disorganised’This is an example of some customer journey mapping which was done in MOJ to understand the experience of court users (witnesses, victims, jurors and also defendants themselves)Interesting departure for MOJ – previously they had focused on process maps and major customer satisfaction research, but they had never tracked the journey through the customer’s eyes and by doing so, they found out some fascinating facts – e.g. satisfaction levels or positive vs negative experience can be driven by small details (e.g. jurors being thanked by the judge for their contribution), or having to queue in the canteen at lunch time with other court staff.Obviously this is a small scale piece of qualitative work but it can be substantiated against existing data or feedback from front line – which is what didFound it particularly powerful to drive change in perception amongst policy community – and it has successfully driven a number of changes – e.g. in training / induction of court staff; front of house experience; also better joining up of different agencies (e.g. recognising that expectations set by police in persuading jurors to give evidence cannot always be met)Detective told him ‘You should have said…’ Too late nowDidn’t see barrister, and detective lateBarrister not very confidence inspiringWitnesses have to be flexible but judges aren’t (lunch 12-1). AnnoyingAccused got offOther reason was that a detail of appearance had changed. Frustrating, ‘knew it was him’Asked to see barrister again. Did – but he wasn’t informativeDidn’t go into court at all on day 1. No information on why. Lack of information most frustrating thingCalled - court room an alien situation. From a tiny room to a theatre. Everyone else in the knowGot off because he had been identified on computer system before line-up (which made evidence invalid. Police knew this was a problem, so why didn’t victim?NegativeSeptemberMarchSource: DCA
10 BETTER CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE JOURNEY MAPPING IN ACTIONBETTER CUSTOMER EXPERIENCEGREATER EFFICIENCYJourney mapping helps:Journey mapping helps:See things from the customer’s point of viewTarget limited resource for maximum impact+Get it right when it really matters e.g. when emotions are highest or need greatestPlan the most efficient and effective experience by reducing duplication and shortening the length of processesJourney mapping in Hammersmith & Fulham has helped design new access systems. Capital costs were paid back in under 2 years, and annual savings of £4m pa are now expectedHMRC mapped journeys and used cartoons to bring them to lifeDeliver information, messages and services at the most appropriate timeDWP mapped the journeys of carers to understand the critical points at which it was most vital to offer help and support.Identify ‘baton-change’ points where service or communication breakdown is most likelyTameside transformed the free school meals application process by mapping customer journeys in order to remove unnecessary points of contact and reduce delaysNorthumbria 101 partnership found that 70% of calls about anti-social behaviour were made outside traditional office hoursIdentify cheapest ‘cost to serve’,Deliver a seamless, streamlined experience that cuts across silosJourney mapping helps look at your business from the outside in to achieve genuine service transformation. It’s a win:win opportunity - better customer experience and greater operational efficiency can go hand in hand.The BIA used journey mapping to understand and simplify customer journeys that cut across other government areas, such as FCO.HMRC used journey mapping to help reduce the high customer error rates that had been a major component of cost in certain areas.Working across boundaries, ‘Tell us Once’ will reduce customer stress by enabling a citizen to report a birth or death only once
11 How to map a customer’s journey? Any one of these will add value alone, but the greatest benefit comes from using them in combination. Start with either Customer Experience Mapping or Mapping the System, and combine the approaches to drive understanding and action. You can achieve optimal benefit by measuring and quantifying what you have learnedThe different types of journey map can be used alone or in combination to better understand customer experiences.
12 QUESTIONS? MORE ON JOURNEY MAPPING… There are also a number of publications that can tell you more:Customer Journey Mapping - Guide for Practitioners is a practical reference document for people who will be carrying out the process of journey mapping.Customer Journey Mapping - Guide for Managers is relevant to those involved in leading and supporting cross-government service transformation.A set of four online training modules serves as a quick introduction to journey mapping, and can be found on the CIF website.An expanded ‘toolkit’, also on the CIF website, gives more tools to use in journey mapping.All the journey mapping guidance was commissioned from Oxford Strategic Marketing by the Cabinet Office and HMRC jointly on behalf of the Customer Insight Forum (CIF).CIF enables service transformation by being an advocate across government for the role and value of customer insight, promoting best practice and knowledge.The role of CJMWhat we use CJM forBenefits of CJMWhen to use CJMDifferent types of CJMHow to do itSelling it in and evaluating the resultsCase studies from Tameside, Holloway Prison, Argos, BIA, Luton and Dunstable NHS Trust, HMRC, MOJ, Eurostar and DWP.QUESTIONS?
13 2 documents:Promoting Customer Satisfaction – Guidance - aspires to take customer satisfaction measurement and surveys out of the social research and insight departments where they have often been burried and to put them centre stage in policy and strategy with key results presented at board level.Aimed at senior level audience.Toolkit: How to measure customer satisfaction – to create expert commissioners
14 What should customer satisfaction do for an organisation? Improve customer focus and move the organisation to be more outward lookingUnderstand what is driving satisfaction / dissatisfaction with servicesCreate strategic alignment within an organisation and provide a common framework and language for staffInform performance management to highlight good performance and areas for improvementDrive efficiency and cost savingCustomer satisfaction measurementhelps an organisation focus on itscustomers, and should galvaniseservice owners, customer-facing staff,policy, strategy, and research staff,as well as senior management,around the aim of improvingthe customer experienceCustomer focusBy carrying out this kind of research the organisation is giving thought to the customer experience, and shifting the focus of the organisation to be more outward looking.Understanding of the key drivers of satisfactionAlso, importantly, help an organisation to differentiate between what people say influences how satisfied they are, and what is really driving their satisfaction during a service experience.Strategic AlignmentProgramme of customer satisfaction measurement can act as a powerful tool for strategic alignment within an organisation. It enables clear objectives which can be shared across the different departments or agencies which touch the customer and provide a consistent focus. Customer satisfaction measurement makes customer focus concrete and provides a common framework and language for and motivating and connecting with customer-facing staff, which can help organisations to tackle the challenge of culture change.Performance managementOnce customer satisfaction measurement has been put in place, the results can also be used for the internal management, to hold people to account and to highlight good and bad performance. However, it has dangers when used in isolation from other measures, as customer satisfaction measures tend to be influenced by many drivers, some of which may be out with the control of the organisation or individualEfficiency and Cost SavingOne of the key advantages of focusing on customer satisfaction is its ability to reduce cost at the same time as improving service. Although it is important to recognise that this is not always the case and that there can be a tension between service and cost, there are also widespread examples of where this double benefit can be realised. These include situations such as reducing avoidable and repeated contact by improving customer communication, and reducing the cost of complaints by getting things right first time.“Focusing on measurement is the wrong place to start. It’s not about data collection, it’s about changing what people think, so the challenge is how to create a shift in thinking in the organisation, not just to get customer information.” (Professor Bob Johnston, Warwick Business school)
15 Addressing rising customer expectations BUT, recognise that customer satisfaction measurement is an on-going process that helps an organisation continue to meet rising customer expectationsThe Kano model for understanding the drivers of customer satisfactionCustomer satisfaction measurement is an on-going process that helps an organisation continue to meet the on-going rise in customer expectationsAs customers have experienced improvements to the services they receive in the private and public sectors, this has lead to rising expectations of those services. This means that the challenge of delivering customer satisfaction is likely to become more difficult as service levels improve.This is illustrated well by the Kano satisfaction model, a widely used framework for understanding the drivers of customer satisfaction. The model, developed in 1984 by Professor Noriaki Kano, distinguishes between essential and differentiating drivers of customer satisfaction and shows how, over time, what were drivers of delight become basic requirements for products or services.The Kano model suggests that customers are never, finally, ‘satisfied’ – that as new service standards are reached, so expectations rise to meet them.Service providers have to accept that maintaining customer satisfaction is an endless task – it has to become part of the fabric and culture of an organisation.
17 The cycle of insight and improvement What are the different stages in measuring customer satisfaction – what do you need to do first?Prompt:Engage stakeholders, find out what you already know, define objectivesMeasureFeedback, communicate, agree action planMeasure track and start again
18 Where do I start? How do I define my service? Who are my customers? What do I know already?What else can I find out?Do customers have a choice?Is it a paid for service or is it ‘free’?How and where do customers interact with my service?Do customers define the service in the same way that I do?Simple transactional or complex?
19 What do I already know? Conducting an Insight Audit: Who is responsible for customer insight or customer satisfaction measurement (if anyone)?What customer satisfaction measurement is currently undertaken?How is measurement used?What qualitative research has been carried out into the customer experience?What customer segmentations are in use?How do customer-facing staff gauge satisfaction levels?How is information from customer feedback (including complaints) used?What management information is available?Take time to understand the information already available:SurveysMystery shoppingConsultation strategyCRM strategy and customer indicesComplaints processStatisticsStaff feedbackCorporate performance management systemWhat else can I find out?Preliminary qualitative researchCustomersKey stakeholdersCustomer facing staff
21 How do I measure satisfaction? What should I ask?Who should be interviewed?How should the information be collected?How do I know I have got it right?
22 Common Measurement: Pros and Cons Benefits and opportunitiesCross-learning from other servicesResource efficiencyGetting started more easilyDisadvantages and risksLack of customisation: The risk that the requirements of common measurement take precedence over the need for tailored insight remains, especially where resources are limitedDifficulty in implementationInability to compare servicesPutting the focus on scores rather than interventionsBenefits and opportunitiesCross-learning from other servicesResource efficiencyGetting started more easilyDisadvantages and risksLack of customisation: The risk that the requirements of common measurement take precedence over the need for tailored insight remains, especially where resources are limited.Difficulty in implementation:Inability to compare services:Putting the focus on scores rather than interventions
23 How can I get insight from the results? Who is saying what?Are there patterns?Is this what we expected?
24 Key Driver AnalysisConsider your audience: what messages do you need to give to whom and how?Example of a bubble chart which is used by BT where they model the drivers of satisfaction according to the impact they have on levels of dissatisfaction.This type of visual display is very usefulfor communicating progress over time. In this case,the organisation chose to actively focus on ‘shrinking’a small number of the largest bubbles over a threemonth period, before moving on to others. Theanalysis was done on a monthly basis, and the chartsshared with management and front line staff, so theywere all able to understand the progress that wasbeing made.
25 Links back to objectives setting What are you going to communicate and to whom?Prioritise – don’t try to do everything at once, but make sure that you do agree what you are going to do
26 9 Key Points for Successful Customer Satisfaction Measurement Establish the objectives and how they relate to the strategic direction of the serviceUnderstand the current situationInvolve stakeholders including senior management and customer-facing staffDon’t reinvent the wheel: carry out an insight audit and build on what is knownKnow who your customers are and which groups you need to understand in greater depthDefine the customer experience in their terms: consider customer journey mappingIdentify key drivers of customer satisfaction and work with stakeholders to prioritise actionUse customer satisfaction measurement to track progress and provide feedback to those responsible for making change happenAct: the research findings are the beginning rather than the end of service improvement
27 Thank you!Helen Begley Transformational Government Cabinet Office t: m: New address: Rm 1.14, Admiralty Arch (South),The Mall, London SW1A 2WH