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1 The Public Sector Programme Management Approach (PSPMA) Executive Briefing
Guide to delivering this presentation….. This presentation is aimed at senior managers who are likely to be an SRO or a member of a programme board – i.e. directors and assistant directors. It can be delivered in as little as 30 minutes, but can be extended to a 90 minutes if time is available. The notes highlight the interactive bits which can be omitted if pushed for time. The notes on these slides are not intended to be a script for people to read out, but to provide the basis for their own script. Please add your own examples wherever possible to emphasise points. The greater the familiarity the audience feels the easier it is for them to take in the key messages. Avoid using jargon and explain things in as much plain English as possible. That includes not using PSPMA as an abbreviation but referencing it in full! It is really useful to have copy of the SRO Guide – “Leading Successful Programmes” to hand.

2 Objective To explain how programme management can help with transformational change To introduce the Public Sector Programme Management Approach (PSPMA) It is important that this presentation is not just about PSPMA. Talking about a method/process will simply turn off senior managers. Therefore the objectives of the session are to demonstrate the linkage between their responsibilities as senior managers (directing change) and programme management as a structure that can help them.

3 Programme Management in the age of austerity
Can’t be addressed by pay-freezes and expenditure- trimming alone Such deficits require transformational change or deep cuts to services Council Tax Frozen Government Grant Reduced Other revenues weakened Significant budget deficit Demand for better services Unprecedented demand for services combined with record levels of national public debt and a recession has led to the “perfect storm” for all public services across the country. This perfect storm is hitting local authorities harder than most. Anticipating this situation, many authorities initiated efficiency reviews and have numerous proposals showing how savings can be made. That was the easy part. Now people like yourself are being asked to sponsor programmes to deliver radical business changes to cut costs and provide more flexible services. In short local and regional authorities are having to transform themselves. The primary purpose of Programme Management is to help organisations deliver transformational change. These radical changes can no longer be tackled on a per service/function basis in isolation but require an authority wide integrated approach, which is where the Public Sector Programme Management Approach (PSPMA) can help. Even without austerity, good Programme Management is very important for public sector organisations as there will always be pressure to deliver better services for the same money or the same services for less money. Furthermore, there is greater scrutiny of outcomes and benefits now – it is no longer ok, just to deliver project outputs – we need to demonstrate the value.

4 Transformational change
Programmes help deliver change to time, cost and quality and help better decision making at senior officer and member level It is important to agree what we mean by project, programme and portfolio management. A good organisation will have a defined strategic plan stating what their organisation needs to look like in say 1, 3 and for some 10 years time. It will be based on a forecast of a future context – changing demographics, elections, upcoming legislation, technological advances, etc. It is highly likely that the strategic plan will describe a different organisation than the one that exists today (the Business As Usual organisation). For some organisations their ‘Business As Usual’ activities may also include projects and programmes. This is particularly true for public service organisations that are delivering social change. Some (small incremental) changes can be implemented through cascading objectives through the line management structure. Other (step) changes to the Business As Usual organisation will need to be implemented through projects and programmes. Some times these step changes are transformational – as in the austerity example from the previous slide. The role of projects is to deliver outputs or capability that enables changes to take place, for example: a new or revised building; a new process; a new or revised IT system. The characteristic of projects is that they are finite. As soon as they have delivered the final output the temporary project team is disbanded. The role of the programme is to co-ordinate the outputs/capabilities from projects to ensure they are coherent as a set, that they are capable of delivering the desired benefits and indeed do in fact deliver the desired benefits. The reason we need programmes is because most benefits will be realised after a project has closed. Programme also ensure that the projects within it are aligned to strategic objectives and that the ‘Business As Usual’ organisation is capable of receiving the project outputs in a sustainable way. Programmes bridge the gap between projects and BAU. Programmes are NOT super projects. Back to the role of senior leaders – they are responsible for just two things: (1) Running their organisation/service and (2) improving their organisation/service. Interaction: Conduct a straw poll as to how much of their time is divided between running and improving. I’ve had groups where more than half the senior managers spend more than half their time sponsoring improvement work! Interaction: If you have time and the audience wants to know more about the differences between projects, programmes and portfolios, insert the extra slide from the back of the pack.

5 Good sponsorship drives programme success
Stakeholder Commitment Testing assumptions behind decisions Business operating models (blueprint) Strong leadership Aligned Scope, Aims, Benefits Positioning within the organisation Skills and expertise Beyond “Time Cost Quality” Assurance An informed and realistic start The Public Sector Programme Management Approach (PS PMA) has been designed to provide a practical approach to managing programmes. It represents best practice programme management as advised by the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), recognised internationally as the leading authority on programme management. It focuses on those aspects of programme management that help to avoid the common causes of programme failure and those aspects that provide confidence that the programme will deliver its expected benefits within reasonable timescales, costs and within tolerable levels of risk. At the core of programme management success is sponsorship – as can be seen by the top left hand box in OGC’s causes of confidence. These 9 causes can be used as a handy checklist for how well their programme is doing. Interaction: Use the list to prompt a discussion on which ones are easiest/hardest. If necessary explain what they mean (see below). An informed start – is it clear what needs to be done, why and with what resources and commitment? Strong leadership - However well a programme may measure up with other causes of confidence, without the right leadership from the SRO and Programme Manager from the very outset, it will still founder. It will also need good political leadership. This is repeatedly the most common cause of failure in programmes. Remember, leadership is down to you! Aligned benefits -The purpose of any programme is encapsulated within the statements of scope, aims and projected benefits. Each must bear a direct correlation to the others and weaknesses in one will affect the other two. Positioning - It is only natural to consider the programme as the most important but how is it viewed elsewhere within the organisation? Without the right profile and a commensurably high level of commitment, success is never certain. That certainty – and confidence - comes with explicit, and regularly validated, affirmation of the priority of the programme within the organisation’s portfolio. Time, cost and quality –These are important, but so are risks, benefits and scope. Make sure all 6 are used as levers for control. Assumptions - Too often, key decisions are based on implicit or unstated assumptions that may originate from outside the programme and which are not apparent to those affected. Assumptions should be identified and stated explicitly. Skills and expertise - Confident programmes have leaders who: (1) have a skilled and experienced Programme Management team established early to ensure PPM practices are embedded from the outset (2) undertake a formal assessment of overall skills requirement, and then devise and resource a strategy for the recruitment of the right people with the right skills at the right time in the programme’s life (3) have the flexibility to continually adjust their skills base to meet evolving needs (4) are ready and able to use consultants or external partners when necessary and have the skills to manage these effectively. Stakeholder commitment - Stakeholder commitment is an important element in a successful programme. Knowing who the stakeholders are, and at which stages their positive involvement is required, should be assessed both at an early stage and regularly throughout the programme’s life. The management of dissension or direct opposition goes much wider than good communication. It demands a proactive approach with strong influencing skills so that, at specific times, key individuals or groups give the right level of commitment and support. Regular and structured communication with affected groups (such as staff when downsizing) is critical. Blueprint - The smooth introduction of new ways of working, and the realisation of projected benefits, is the result of early and careful planning. This approach includes the early appointment of a Business Change Manager (BCM) who comes from within the business and knows it well. The approach also includes involving frontline staff in designing the new processes and how day-to-day business will be managed during transition (the design is known as a blueprint). Their motivation will have a tremendous impact on how well the implementation goes. Ensuring you have these ‘causes’ in place will help you tailor your approach. Remember, one size does not fit all. OGC’s causes of confidence, 2010

6 Good sponsorship drives programme success
90% A visible, involved SRO Strong programme management 88% Compelling case for change 71% Early integration of disciplines 68% High ambition (Stretch goals) 61% “Best and brightest” team 61% Only spend 30 seconds or so on this slide. It is used to emphasise the ‘Strong Leadership’ cause of confidence from the previous slide. This chart shows the responses of people involved in programmes at the Home Office as to what contributed to successful programmes. You can see, the top of the list is a ‘Visible, involved SRO’. That means the people who you are presenting to need to be more than a symbolic figure head but someone who actively supports the programme manager. Interaction: ask them what they do (or could do) to be a visible, involved SRO. Conclude this by explaining that nearly every study regarding programme success/failure (such as the National Audit Office, Gartner, Standish Group, KPMG etc) includes leadership in the top 5 most important things to have. Once example of that is the OGC common causes of failure which is on the next slide. Horizontal (vs. Functional) process orientation 59% Source: Home Office

7 Poor sponsorship is a significant contributor to failure
OGC research on the common causes of programme failure: there is a poorly defined or poorly communicated vision there is insufficient board level support leadership is weak there are unrealistic expectations of the organisational capacity and capability there is insufficient focus on benefits the organisation fails to change its culture there is insufficient engagement of stakeholders there is no real picture (blueprint) of the future capability an incorrect toolset is used OGC worked with the National Audit Office to produce this list back in It is revisited periodically, but has never needed to change. The elements I’ve underlined are those causes that are a result of poor sponsorship. It is their primary role to ensure these things do not happen. These 9 causes provide a handy checklist for the health of their programme. Weak leadership also means the political leadership required by the programme. Interaction: Get them to work in pairs and ask one person in each pair to challenge the other as to whether their programme exhibits these weaknesses or not. After about 5-10 minutes get each pair to explain the one that is giving them the most concern. Encourage a debate between the group as to what could be done to treat the weakness.

8 The PSPMA Guide The PSPMA focuses on those aspects of programme management that help to avoid the common causes of programme failure and those aspects that provide confidence that the programme will deliver its expected benefits within reasonable timescales, costs and within tolerable levels of risk. It represents best practice programme management as advised by the Office of Government Commerce (OGC – now cabinet office), recognised internationally as the leading authority on programme management The PSPMA has been designed to provide a practical approach to managing programmes. It is NOT bureaucratic. It encourages just enough programme management overhead to be sufficient to manage the complexity, risk and importance of the programme – I call this the goldilocks overhead – not too much as to be inefficient but not too little as to be ineffective. Explain how the PSPMA is constructed. There is a lifecycle view for those people who think in time slices – this week, next week and the week after There is a thematic view for those people who think in concepts/techniques – e.g. risk management, stakeholder management etc There is a role based view for those people who just want to know what is expected of them and what to expect of others There is a documentation based view for those people who want to know what needs to be produced reviewed and approved There is a glossary of terms for those who want to cut through the jargon – e.g. what is a blueprint? There is a set of checklists for those people that just want to be sure they are doing the right sort of thing Additionally there is a guide to adopting/embedding PSPMA in an organisation as the corporate standard for programmes The SRO Guide they have a copy of is also available to download from the wiki. Emphasise that PSPMA is NOT prescriptive – it can be used in whatever way adds most value to the organisation or programme. Interaction: If you have an internet connection provide a demonstration. In particular show them the role pages (their roles) and checklists. Ask if anyone wants to know anything about programmes and then navigate to part of PSPMA where it is provided. Note: The slides that follow dive in to elements of PSPMA that is of interest to them.

9 The PSPMA Lifecycle - Overview
Explain how the PSPMA has taken MSP’s processes to provide a time-based lifecycle [MSP is OGC’s guidance for programme management]. Identification phase - At the outset of the programme there will be a lot of ambiguity about what is required. The Identification Phase is an opportunity to evaluate the potential programme as quickly as possible at a high level prior to committing energy and resources to define it fully. It considers the strategic fit, vision, costs, duration, risks, and provides a high level business case for the programme. This should be a lightweight phase as any money spent will be wasted if you decide not to go ahead. It needs to be only just sufficient in order to determine how much effort is required to define the programme fully and whether it is worthwhile to proceed to the definition phase. Definition phase - The Definition Phase uses the information in the Programme Brief to develop the scenarios and options that the council should consider. It then defines and plans the chosen option in sufficient detail to prove the programme’s viability and to enable projects to be launched. Skipping this phase or moving to the delivery phase too early is a root-cause of many programme failures. Avoid the temptation to go into delivery too soon. If there are some urgent things that need to be done then it is ok to launch a few (and I mean very few) projects during the definition phase, particularly those that provide quick wins or where there is a long lead time. Delivery phase - The primary focus during the Delivery Phase is to launch projects and deliver the programme plan. Robust management and delivery activities are required to ensure that the projects’ deliverables enable the business changes required and those in turn deliver the benefits sought. Continual stakeholder engagement, risk and issue management, benefits management, blueprint management, business case management is required during delivery. Your Programme Manager will be busy! Closure phase - As programmes can last for many years, it is important that programmes do not ‘drift’ on as if part of normal business. The purpose of the Closure Phase is to ensure that any business changes can be sustained when the programme team is disbanded, that performance of the programme is reviewed, that lessons have been learned and that any post programme benefits management activities are planned and owned. Interaction: If you have time, revisit this slide once you have introduced the remaining elements of the PSPMA and get them to use their SRO Guide on a per phase basis to: Assess whether there are any responsibilities they are struggling with Use the checklists as a health-check on their programme Treat it as a ‘surgery’ session to help them with any aspect of their programme. They will value this a lot.

10 Typical layers of leadership
Sponsoring Group Operations Business Stakeholders Programme Board Every programme needs to define the leadership and staffing structure needed to run the programme effectively. Careful consideration should be given at the outset to what is expected in terms of skills, time and experience from the people who take on key roles. The programme and project organisation structures need to be designed such that: There are clear lines of responsibility from top to bottom (i.e. everyone is accountable to someone) Duplication is avoided Reports and reviews are efficient It is important to understand that this structure delivers Accountability at the Sponsoring Group level Responsibility at the Programme Board level Action and delivery at the Project Board level The Business operations are the controlling factor in the rate of change Local authorities have the unique element of elected members. In most situations, they would have influence on the Sponsoring Group, if not membership. Project Delivery

11 Recommended Programme Management Roles
Senior business management Sponsoring Group focus on investment and strategic alignment Senior Responsible Owner Programme Board Business Change Manager focus on driving the programme forward Programme Manager Project Boards The Sponsoring Group is the group of senior officers responsible for the investment decision and for ensuring the on-going alignment of the programme to the authority’s strategic objectives. They will appoint the Senior Responsible Owner (SRO). In a local authority the Sponsoring Group may include political membership (e.g. the Lead Member for the area of the programme’s focus). It is important to understand from the outset how Cabinet Members need to be involved in the Sponsoring Group. The SRO is the single individual with overall responsibility for ensuring that a programme meets its objectives and delivers the projected benefits. It is likely that the SRO will appoint the Programme Manager and Project Boards for the projects within the programme. It is important to realistically assess the time required to fulfil this role. The person concerned needs to prioritise their time and give the programme the attention it requires. The Programme Board’s prime purpose is to drive the programme forward and deliver the outcomes and benefits. Its members will provide resources and specific commitment to support the Senior Responsible Owner. Members of the Programme Board are individually accountable to the SRO for their areas of responsibility and delivery within the programme. The Programme Manager is responsible for the set-up and day-to-day management and delivery of the programme on behalf of the SRO. There are often capable internal candidates who would make excellent programme managers with appropriate support, e.g. coaching. Whether the programme manager is drawn from the Authority’s staff, or is an external appointment, it is important to provide them with the organisational support and backing to succeed. The Programme Manager acts on behalf of the SRO and must be seen to be doing so. The PSPMA helps the SRO know what to expect of the Programme Manager in terms of documentation being produced and maintained. There are checklists to help. The Business Change Manager (BCM) is responsible for benefits management, from identification through to realisation. The aim is to ensure that the new capabilities delivered by the projects in the programme are properly implemented and embedded within their part of the organisation. Usually, there will be more than one Business Change Manager for a programme, to manage impacts in different parts of the organisation (or in different organisations). It is sometimes advisable to establish a Change Team to support the Business Change Managers and contribute specialist business change skills. The Project Board is responsible for the overall direction and management of the project within the constraints set out by the Programme Board. A Project Board typically comprises a Project Executive, one or more Senior Users and one or more Senior Suppliers. The Project Manager is the single focus for day-to-day management of a project. This person has the authority to run the project on behalf of the Project Board within the constraints laid down by the Project Board focus on delivering the capabilities Projects

12 Further Information Useful Contacts: Information
Tim Ellis – Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea Tel:    Lorna Gill – Richmond Council Tel: Information The PSPMA Guide: SRO Guide – “Leading Successful Change”: The PSPMA Embedding Guide: PSPMA_Embedding_Guide Capital Ambition website: LG Group Project & Programme Management Community of Practice (CoP) website: Explain that the PSPMA has been funded by Capital Ambition and has been developed by project/programme managers from local authorities and the GLA and supported by lead authors of OGC guidance. The contact details of people involved with PSPMA is shown on this slide together with links for further information.

13 Benefits of using the PSPMA
The PSPMA helps senior officers deliver changes that stick It has been tailored for use by public sector bodies (as at September 2011, 43 organisations are using the PSPMA) The PSPMA provides clarity around the programme’s benefits, timescale, costs and structure It provides clarity around roles and responsibilities The PSPMA improves stakeholder engagement with the public, businesses, elected members, senior officers, staff, central government and partners such as PCTs, Emergency Services and service providers It does not create added bureaucracy The PSPMA is tried and tested It is a simpler version of MSP, but still based on best practices The slide says it all! You might want to run the EPPM Video at this point (from the Capital Ambition website) as that contains some good interviews from other SROs!

14 This presentation was prepared by Outperform UK, An accredited consulting organisation and supporter of the EPPM programme. t e w M_o_R® is a Registered Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce in the United Kingdom and other countries PRINCE2® is a Registered Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce in the United Kingdom and other countries MSP™ is a Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce The Swirl logo™ is a Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce P3M3™ a Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce BPUG® is a Registered Trade Mark of Best Practice User Group Ltd Best Practice User Group™ and the Best Practice User Group™ logo are Trade Marks of Best Practice User Group Ltd Outperform™ is a Trade Mark of Outperform UK Ltd

15 Additional slides follow which may be used for extended sessions

16 The PSPMA Checklists Explain that there are useful checklists (similar to those in their SRO guide) that can be used at different points in the programme’s lifecycle. Generally these checklists are aligned to specific programme documentation and helps those people producing them to focus on the right things and those people reviewing or approving them to know what questions to ask.

17 The PSPMA Roles and Document Responsibilities
The PSPMA is based on a minimum set of documentation that needs to be produced and updated at different points in the programme’s lifecycle. PSPMA provides clarity over responsibilities for such documentation by defining who is responsible for producing it, who is accountable for ensuring it gets done, who will sign it off and who needs to be consulted. This is a traditional RACI type model. A key point on this slide is that the documentation list is not very long (a lot shorter than the 36 documents recommended by MSP!).

18 Projects v Programmes Projects Programmes Characteristics
Driven by deliverables Finite - defined start and finish Bounded and scoped deliverables Delivery of product or outcome Benefits usually realised after project closure Shorter timescale Driven by vision of “End State” No pre-defined path Delivers changes to the business capability Co-ordination of products/outcomes Benefits realised during the programme and afterwards Longer timescale Management focus Detailed specification (of how) Control of activities to produce products High level specification (of why/what) Stakeholder Management Benefit realisation Dependency management Transition management / change acceptance Integration with corporate strategies Rather than use definitions to describe the differences between projects and programmes, it is more useful to consider their characteristics. It is not important what things are called (or the definitions used), but it is importance that the right approach is used (see next slide). This table shows the characteristics of projects compared with programmes. If your ‘change’ is more like a project then manage it as a project, if it is more like a programme then manage it as a programme. Remember, programmes are not just large projects, they are just different.

19 Importance of using the right approach for the task
Being managed as project Being managed as a programme It is a project Optimised Overcomplicated Over-governed No clear boundaries, e.g. scope It is a programme Interdependencies not picked up Business is not changed Benefits are not measured

20 A quick note on Visions The Present Equilibrium Reduce Attractiveness
Increase Attractiveness The vision describes a compelling picture of the future that the programme will enable. It describes the new and/or improved services, how they will look and feel and be experienced in the future. The vision is the basis for engaging with and gaining commitment from stakeholders. This guidance suggests two methods for expressing the vision: A Postcard from the Future: This is useful for communicating the vision quickly and powerfully such as in brief conversations, or as a summary in documents A Letter from the Future: This provides enough detail to enable further definition of the programme, as well as being a communication tool for creating a deeper understanding of what the future will be like Both are concise, the letter being an elaboration of the postcard.

21 A quick note on Blueprints
Front Office Back Office Support Customers Suppliers New Enhance Out-Source GAP As Is (current) state Future (Final) state Processes Organisation The purpose of the Blueprint is to give a detailed description of the Future State, based on the high-level Vision and Outcomes contained in the Programme Brief. The blueprint can be used to Describe the Current State Describe how the organisation will look and function in the future (the Future State) Identify the extent and nature of the change required to achieve the Future State Provide a view of the step changes to be achieved by each tranche Sometimes blueprints may be referred to as a Target Operating Model. Technology Information

22 A quick note on benefits
The PSPMA provides a very pragmatic approach to defining and managing benefits. It all starts with producing a benefits map as shown in this slide. Use this slide to explain that it is important not to be sloppy when using the terms outputs, outcomes, benefits and objectives. They mean different things and are used in different ways. An output/enabler is something that a project can create/modify/acquire and deliver to the organisation A business change is the affect of using those outputs. A blueprint should describe the set of business changes required. Business Changes help you identify Business Change Managers. A benefit is a measure of the impact of a business change over a period of time. Some impacts will be instantaneously realised, others will be realised incrementally. A programme objective is a target set by key stakeholders and helps define the point at which a programme has served its purpose. Some benefits may continue to be accrued after the programme has met its targets. The vision statement will typically contain objectives.

23 A quick note on tranches
D C 1st tranche 2nd tranche 3rd tranche Current Business Research project Development project Change project Tranche 1 projects Tranche 2 projects Tranche 3 projects Future State Vision Benefits enabled A tranche is a programme structure that achieves distinct step changes in capability and benefit realisation Tranches are groups of projects structured around major step changes in service delivery and the delivery of the Benefits associated with those step changes. The end of a tranche is a major programme milestone, after which the achievement of one or more Benefits can be proved. For example, in a programme to deliver a new Customer Service Centre the first tranche might deliver the call centre and trained staff to enable the centralisation of customer transactions via the telephone. The second tranche might deliver web-enabled transactions. The main aims when deciding which projects to include in each tranche are: To achieve cost savings through avoiding duplication of effort, for example the more projects you have the more project reviews you need to carry out To reduce inter-project dependencies where one project cannot progress as planned without a deliverable from another project – such dependencies are a major cause of risk in programmes. Deciding how to break down the programme into tranches will also affect the number of projects in the project list, (some may be brought together into bigger projects or large projects may be split). What is important for senior leaders is that tranches provide them with control as they can be used as Stop/Go points. It is also useful to align them with funding cycles – so it is common in local authorities for tranches to be aligned to the fiscal year end. (C) Jennifer Stapleton

24 Copyright This briefing, along with the core PSPMA guidance, was developed by the Excellence in Programme and Project Management (EPPM) programme, a Capital Ambition funded collaboration involving numerous local and regional authorities and internationally recognised experts. It is the copyright of London Councils – © All rights reserved. The briefing is based on an original idea by Aspire Europe Ltd and Outperform UK Ltd, two leading project and programme management training and consulting organisations. Original content reproduced with permission. Any redistribution or reproduction of part or all of the contents in any form is prohibited other than the following: You may print or download to a local hard disk extracts for your personal and non-commercial use only You may copy the content to individual third parties for their personal use, but only if you acknowledge EPPM and Outperform as the source of the material You may not, except with our express written permission, distribute or commercially exploit the content. Visit for further details of the EPPM programme. 24

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