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Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Sensitivity of the neutrino telescope Antares to the diffuse galactic neutrinos flux.

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Presentation on theme: "Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Sensitivity of the neutrino telescope Antares to the diffuse galactic neutrinos flux."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Sensitivity of the neutrino telescope Antares to the diffuse galactic neutrinos flux Fabrice Jouvenot Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

2 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Stable Neutral Weak interaction cross section Neutrino The neutrino, an astroparticle Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

3 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Radio waves 21,1 cm - Dwingeloo Infrared COBE / DIRBE Near infrared COBE / DIRBE Visible Photomosaic - Lausten et al. X-rays 0.25, 0.75, 1.5 keV – ROSAT / PSPC Gamma rays >100 MeV – CGRO / EGRET Milky Way Neutrinos ANTARES ? The Sky Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

4 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 The Galaxy Spiral arms Bulge Halo Ring + bar Galactic center 8,5 kpc 15 – 20 kpc Galactic plane ~ 1 kpc Sun 1 pc = 3,3 light years Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

5 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Inside the Galaxy Compact objets Interstellar Matter Interstellar radiation field Magnetic field Galatic wind Cosmic rays Atomic Hydrogen H I Lyman α, and 21cm absorption Molecular Hydrogen H mm emission from the CO rotation Ionized Hydrogen H II MHD models, pulsar observations Helium He 91 % number 71 % mass 9 % number 28 % mass Mean density: 1 proton per cm 3 Proton ~ 90 % Alpha ~ 9 % Heavy Nucleus ~ 1 % Galactoradius [kpc] Density [atoms cm -3 ] R, kpc Energy density, eV cm -3 CMB Dust Stars In the galactic plane TOTAL Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

6 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Theorical hypothesis Propagation Equilibrium between CR, B et ISM. Cosmic RaysMagnetic FieldInterstellar Matter On Earth Observables Electromagnetic Interactions Diffusion on magnetic field and galactic winds Reacceleration Nuclear physics Nuclear reaction Decay Energy losses Propagation of Cosmic-Rays Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

7 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Galprop Simulation of Cosmic-Rays confinment Reading parameters and data (cross-sections, branching ratio, …) Creation of the Galaxy (ISM, isrf, …) Cosmic-Rays and sourcesPropagation of the heaviest nucleus to the lightest Secondary products and decays Cosmic-rays, electrons/positrons, antiprotons, photons. Neutrinos production ( ν μ, ν μ, ν e, ν e from charged pions decays) ) Cylindrical galactocentric geometry: –R (0 – 30 kpc) –z (-4 – 4 kpc) Sources distributions Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

8 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Neutrinos production Process giving a neutrino with energy E ν. (Charged pions decays Energy range of the pion (2 body or 3body decay)). Process creating π in p-p collisions ( Δ resonance & multi pion production) Integral over the CR spectrum and ISM density. Neutrino Oscillation ν e :ν μ :ν τ 1:2:0 1:1:1 Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

9 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Models ObservationsConventional CHard Nucleus HN Hard Electron HEMN Bremsstrahlung Inverse Compton Bremsstrahlung Inverse Compton Bremsstrahlung Inverse Compton E 2 x Intensity [MeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ] Energy [MeV] Toward the galactic center Orion arm 500 pc Toward the galactic center Sun Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

10 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Energy [MeV] E 2 x Neutrino flux [particles MeV s -1 cm -2 ] Energy [MeV] E 2 x Neutrino flux [particles MeV s -1 cm -2 ] Galactic emission 0°-90°90°0°-180°180° Flux distribution (arbitrary unit) Galactic latitudeGalactic longitude ν μ + ν μ on Earth Energy [MeV] E 2 x Neutrino flux [particles MeV s -1 cm -2 ] HEMN model C model HE model HN model γ = 2,3 à 2,9 Antares Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

11 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Detection Principle Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

12 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 A bit of geography Undersea cable -2475m Antares La Seyne-sur-Mer Michel Pacha Institut Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

13 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 The detector 60 m – 70 m 12 lines of 75 PM 5 sectors / line 5 storeys / sector 3 PM / storeys 350 m 100 m 14,5 m Junction box Cable 40 km 2475 m Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

14 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Background Atmospheric Atmospheric neutrinos Atmospheric muons Environmental Potassium decay Bioluminescence 40 K 40 Ca + e - + ν e Time [s] Counting rate [kHz] Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

15 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 AMANDA South pole ANTARES 43 o North : Galactic centre observed 2/3 of the time View of the sky Instant view : 2 π sr Integrated view for a day : 3,5 π sr Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

16 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Reconstruction Track reconstruction Detector answer Angular resolution Energy reconstruction Angular resolution Angular resolution [°] Logarithm of the true energy of the muon [GeV] Logarithm of the reconstructed energy of the muon [GeV] Antares response function Number of events Log of the muon energy [GeV] Spectral indices Effective area for muons Angle between the neutrino and the reconstructed muon <1 degree Effective area [km2] Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

17 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Monte Carlo Simulation 5 millions induces muons (at least 1 PM fired) Energy: 10 GeV – 10 7 GeV Working files Flux simulation : 1 MeV – 10 7 GeV Galactic emission Earth rotation Galactic & atmospheric ponderation Atmospheric muons Isotropic Monte Carlo simulation Energy: 10 GeV – 10 7 GeV 95x10 10 ν μ 110x10 10 ν μ Neutrinos Atmospheric Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

18 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Result of the simulation Galactic neutrinos : ~ 1 to 40 Upgoing muons per year for the whole sky, E> 10 GeV Atmospheric neutrinos : ~ Atmospheric muons : ~ Upgoing muons per year for the whole sky, E> 10 GeV Signal Background Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

19 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Atmospheric muons Atmospheric neutrinos Cut on the quality Log 10 (number of events per year) Energy Angular cut Atmospheric muons < 10% atm. neutrinos above 10 TeV 33 millions upgoing reconstructed muons per year Multiplicity: 4,4 Distance between muons: 15 m Signal extraction % of the number of events per year Galactic longitude [°] Galactic neutrinos Atmospheric neutrinos ,1 0,2 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 Galactic latitude [°] Galactic longitude Galactic latitude Reconstruction quality Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

20 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Calculus principle Detection probability Getting probability NlNl Number of events b Probability (N obs > N l ) < 1% If theres only background b+s Detection probability estimatedobserved Detection probability Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion years Detection probability Cut on log of the reconstructed energy log[GeV]

21 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Antares sensitivity Detection probability vs observation time (99% CL) Number of years of running Detection probability 0 0,5 1 A kilometric detector is needed ! Performances It is not possible to observe the Galaxy in a reasonable time Limit on the model, γ = 2,3 Antares – 5 years Antares – 10 years Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

22 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Effective area ~ 40 × Antares (2 km²) Cost ~ 5 × Antares Kilometric extrapolation Example of a km3 detector The HN model is observable. Sensitivity HNHECHEMN Homogenous cube 20 x 20 x 20 PM looking downward Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

23 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Shape identification Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

24 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Conclusions Modelisation Dark clouds Galactic doubt Site choice Depth Latitude Environment Energie reconstruction Effective area Other neutrinos flavours Detector Galactic fluxes have been calculated Answer of neutrino telescopes Antares: limits on the HN model. KM3: detection or limits on HN. Bilan Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

25 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006

26 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Kilometric telescopes 2005 Ice Cube 2006 KM3Net Toward the kilometre cube… 1996 – 2000 Tests Study of feasibility 2005 – 2007 Construction & deployment Antares Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

27 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Shape identification ? ??? ? ??? ! Max proba pixel Scan nearest pixels Selection max proba Extension of the sélection Probability calculation Decrease the pixel size Working area Map Pixel Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

28 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Nuclei Contraints Electrons & positrons Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion

29 Fabrice Jouvenot University of Liverpool The 3 rd of February 2006 Stable Neutral Weak interaction cross section Neutrino E < eV deviated by magnetic fields Short mean free path E > eV GZK effect Noyaux Astroparticles Short mean free path 1 TeV 700 Mpc 1 PeV 15 kpc Libre parcours moyen dû à linteraction avec les différents fonds de photons Photon Libre parcours moyen due to the interaction with the different photons backgrounds protons Introduction The Galaxy Galactic Neutrinos ANTARESSensitivityKm3Conclusion


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