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Motion

Motion Vocabulary motion momentum speed work velocity joule
acceleration power force watt newton work input net force work output friction wave gravity transverse wave weight longitudinal wave mass amplitude terminal velocity wavelength free fall reflection projectile motion refraction inertia

Speed vs. Velocity Velocity – SI unit m/s plus direction
Speed - SI unit m/s Velocity – SI unit m/s plus direction distance traveled divided by the time interval during which the motion occurred speed of an object in a particular direction

Acceleration – pg. 514 rate at which velocity changes over time; an object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change. a = v2 – v1/ t

Force – SI unit N – pg. 517 a push or a pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of the object; force has size and direction net force – combination of all the forces acting on an object balanced force – when the forces on an object produce a net force of 0 N

copy question & answer in notebook
How is velocity different from speed? How does the direction of the net force on a object compare to the direction of its motion? How does a net force of 0 N impact an object’s motion?

Friction – pg. 521 a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact

kinetic friction – pg. 522 static friction – pg. 523

Gravity – pg. 527 a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses

mass affects gravitational force – pg. 528
distance affects gravitational force – pg. 529

weight vs. mass weight mass
measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object a measure of the amount of matter in an object

Newton’s 1st law of motion
An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at a constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

Newton’s 2nd law The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied. F = m x a a = F/m

Newton’s 3rd law When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.

Momentum a quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity of an object p = m x v

Science math equations to know
speed average speed = total distance / total time s = d / t Newton’s 2nd law Force = mass x acceleration F = m x a acceleration average acceleration = final velocity – initial velocity / time a = v2 – v1 / t momentum momentum = mass x velocity p = m x v

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