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How do we define and control social behavior. SOCIAL CONTROL  Mechanisms that attempt to deter deviant behavior  Means to promote stability within society.

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Presentation on theme: "How do we define and control social behavior. SOCIAL CONTROL  Mechanisms that attempt to deter deviant behavior  Means to promote stability within society."— Presentation transcript:

1 How do we define and control social behavior

2 SOCIAL CONTROL  Mechanisms that attempt to deter deviant behavior  Means to promote stability within society DEVIANCE  Any behavior that deviates from the norm  Culture dictates what is and is not deviant  Power structures dictate what is deviant

3  Sanctions  Rewards and punishments  Laws  Laws are created in response to social needs  Social process of developing regulation  Laws change based on time and needs  Agents of the state enforce laws Agents of the state enforce laws

4  Deviance  Behavior that violates social norms and standards  Deviants  Individuals that violate social norms and standards  Could also be made up of social groups

5  Social labels applied to deviant behavior  Social labels that are attached to individuals that commit certain acts  Negative in nature, the worse the act, the harsher the stigma

6  Popular in Criminal Justice  Argues that labeling someone will increase their chances of assuming that role  By assuming someone will “be” something; they will become it  Which groups have the power to determine what is deviant



9  How is deviance and social control explained by the three major theories  Functionalist POV  Conflict POV  Interactionist POV

10 SOCIAL CONTROL  Rules and regulations are needed for stability  Methods of control are needed to maintain order  Rules are understood by all and imposed equally DEVIANCE  Maintains social stability and structure  Provides examples of what not to do  Provides JOBS  Establishes right and wrong

11  Structural-functionalist theories  Anomie - the breakdown of the norms guiding behavior leads to social disorganization  Strain theory - those with fewer resources are less able to achieve societally shared goals and may resort to deviant behaviors to achieve their desired goals

12 SOCIAL CONTROL  Emerges as a response to deviant behavior  Necessary to maintain order and stability  Reduces ANOMIE by establishing expectations DEVIANCE  Deviance emerges as social structure erodes  Eventually becomes part of society  Community defines what is deviant

13  Anomic theory of Deviance  How can anomie contribute to deviance  Less integration = more deviance  Goals are creates along with acceptable means of achievement

14  Conformity - embracing the society's definition of success and adhering to the established and approved means of achieving success  Innovation - use of illicit means to reach approved goals  Ritualism - strict adherence to culturally ‑ prescribed rules, even though individuals give up on the goals they hoped to achieve  Retreatism - giving up on both the goals and the means  Rebellion - rejecting the socially approved ideas of "success" and the means of attaining that success, but replaces those with alternative definitions of success and alternative strategies for attaining the new goals

15 DEVIANT  Innovator  Finds an alternative  Ritualist  Day to day activities  Retreatist  Rejects means and goals  Rebel  Rejects means and goals but offers alternative social structure NON-DEVIANT  Conformist  Accepts means and goals of mainstream society  Does not deviate from established means to achieve goals  Accepts the norms of society


17  Social control creates formal institutions to create laws and regulations  Becomes bureaucratic in nature to comply with rules and regulations  System becomes more important for compliance  System of control becomes formalized

18 SOCIAL CONTROL  Rules and regulations are written by those with power  System tends to favor social groups with power and influence DEVIANCE  Deviant behavior is defined by those with power  Laws are imposed upon those that question authority  People in power DEFINE deviance

19  Argues that the upper class will always define deviance to support their position  Lower class is always seen as deviant  Competition for resources creates deviance  White collar crime is not deviant ▪ a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation ▪ Minimum Security prisons

20  The upper class determine what is wrong  The lower class are forced to live by the laws created by the dominant class  The lower class make up a higher % of “deviants” and deviant behavior

21  U.S. Population  U.S. Prison Population

22  Laws reflect the current opinion of what is right or wrong  Consensus crimes - members of a society are in general agreement about the serious of the deviant act  Conflict crimes - one group passes a law over which there is disagreement or which disadvantages another group

23  Predatory or street crime  Victimless or public order crimes  Hate crimes  Organized crime  Occupational or white collar crime  State organized crimes  Global crimes

24  Crimes against the company  Crimes against employees (e.g., the neglect of worker safety)  Crimes against customers  Crimes against the public  White-collar crimes are less publicized, but ultimately more costly and more deadly than violent predatory crimes

25  Uniform crime reports  Self-reported surveys  Victimization surveys  Triangulation is best!


27 SOCIAL CONTROL  Control is created through person to person interaction  Peer Pressure  Primary Groups  Secondary Groups DEVIANCE  Cultural Transmission  Differential Association  Routine Activities

28  Conformity and Obedience  Adhering to norms by following along Adhering to norms by following along  Obeying authority and rules of the state  Who is involved  Primary Groups  Secondary Groups

29  Functionalist POV  Emile Durkheim  Robert Merton  Conflict POV  Karl Marx  Antonio Gramsci  Interactionist POV  Stanley Milgram  Max Weber  Deviance  Violation of social norms  Definitions of deviant behavior  Continuation of deviance  Social Control  Methods of control  Benefits of control

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