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Towards a bibliometric database for the social sciences and humanities Carmen Lopez Illescas, Felix de Moya Anegon, Janus Linmans, Anton Nederhof and Henk.

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Presentation on theme: "Towards a bibliometric database for the social sciences and humanities Carmen Lopez Illescas, Felix de Moya Anegon, Janus Linmans, Anton Nederhof and Henk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Towards a bibliometric database for the social sciences and humanities Carmen Lopez Illescas, Felix de Moya Anegon, Janus Linmans, Anton Nederhof and Henk F. Moed SCIMago Research Group, Univ Granada, Spain CWTS, Leiden Univ, the Netherlands

2 This presentation ….. Highlights wider context and its dynamics Makes analytical distinctions Describes actual developments Discusses options

3 Structure of the presentation Introduction; background Analysis of existing SSH databases Actual use of bibliometric indicators in research assessment Actual practices in dealing with non- publication outputs Options for creating a comprehensive database of SSH outputs

4 General scheme Research Assessment Objectives; criteria Assessment methodologies; indicators Databases

5 1. Introduction; background About SSH General trends Indicators

6 Science vs. Social Sci & Humanities (SSH) ScienceSoc Sci + Humanities Source/ document types Journal research article is main type Great diversity; books important (e.g. monographs, edited works) Journal systemConcentration in limited number of international journals Less concentration; national journals also important Bibliographical system Concentration in limited number of large internat. databases Great diversity of bibliographies and catalogs (national, specialized)

7 SSH outputs and impacts ImpactsPublication/textNon-publication / non-text Scientific- scholarly Research paper; monograph; book chapter Research data file; video of experiment EducationalTeaching course book; PhDs EconomicPatentProduct; process; device; design; image CulturalNewspaper article;TV interviews; Performances; exhibits; events

8 Trends-1 : Increasing importance of research assessment Performance-based funding across scientific institutions Institutions operate in a global market Public rankings of institutions European Research Area and Research Council Management tools within institutions Need for adequate tools for research assessment in SSH fields

9 Trends - 2 : Electronic publishing; more databases Publishers make their content electronically available on-line More and more documents freely available via the Web (Open access, self archiving) Standardisation of meta-data and meta-data infastructures More repositories (institutional/disciplinary) More institutional research management systems Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar are genuine competitors

10 Trends – 3 : Better coverage of SSH; more indicators WoS and Scopus expand their source coverage of SSH fields Bibliographical databases implement bibliometric features Calculation of bibliometric indicators not merely done by bibliometric experts

11 Two types of bibliometric activity Type of activityDescriptionType of database used Desk-top or poor mans bibliometrics Collects simple indicator data directly from database Bibliographic database; indicator sets Advanced bibliometrics Data collection protocols; verification; sophisticated indicators Bibliometric database

12 Bibliometric database: examples Cited references parsed and linked to corresponding targets (citation index) De-duplicated institutional affiliations Author names linked to unique researchers Abstracts parsed into noun phrases Dates expressed as numbers Policy relevant subfield delimitations Acknowledgements parsed; funders de- duplicated

13 Principal bibliometric indicators and database requirements – 1 ConceptDefinitionMinimal database requirements ProductionNr. written documents published Publ. meta-data; publ. types Importance of publ. source Impact factor; expert ratings Source categorizations ImpactCitationsCitation index Collaboration(Institutional) co- authorship Multiple authors/ addresses

14 Principal bibliometric indicators and database requirements – 2 ConceptDefinitionMinimal database requirements Cognitive structures e.g. co-word mapsTitles, abstracts Qualitative citation analysis Citation context analysis Full texts Semantics- based detection of links e.g., scientific instruments mentioned in full texts Full texts

15 Bibliometric impact indicators IndicatorComment CitationsWhat do citations in SSH fields measure? Full text downloadsLimited availability; What do downloads measure? HyperlinksWebometric assessment; combine with other indicators Book purchasesNormally not publicly available (but see Library holdingsExploratory studies published recently Library loansNot used in res. perf. studies

16 2. Analysis of existing SSH databases

17 Sources of publication meta data National bibliographies Library catalogues (OPAC)US Library of Congress; Acad libr; OCLC Worldcat Short title cataloguesESTC; national bibliogr. for older books Publisher or vendor catalogues; Springer ebook catalogue Special bibliographies and abstracts FRANCIS, Sociol Abstr, PsychInfo, ECONLIT, … Citation indexesWeb of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar RepositoriesIn principle open access Institutional research management systems Output registration systems annual research reports Google Book SearchSee later slide

18 Sources of citation data Citation IndexesWeb of Science (SSCI, A&HCI), Scopus Special bibliographiesPsychInfo, Sociol Abstr, World Polit Abstr,… ; most do not have citations RepositoriesCiteseerX; most repositories do not have citations Google ScholarHarzings publish-or- perish software allows citation counting CrossRefCross-publisher linking system provided by publishers

19 ERIH Journal classification for 11 Humanities research fields (6,000 journals) ClassDescription AHigh ranking international journals with very strong reputation BStandard international journals with good reputation CImportant domestic research journals

20 Analysis of databases Producers Special bibliographies 20 mainly European bibliographies Big citation indexes Thomson, Elsevier, Google PublishersUniversity Presses Scientific institutions Institutional repositories Scientific institutions Research management systems

21 European special bibliographies: Aspects considered – 1 Database producer Dates of coverage (Sub)disciplines covered Number of records Selection criteria of sources Countries or languages covered Type of sources covered Nr authors of a source publication included Nr institutional affiliations included Standardisation of author names/affiliations

22 European special bibliographies: Aspects considered – 2 Categorization of documents Type of content classification system Does it contain cited references in source publications? Has the database ever been used in bibliometric studies?

23 DatabaseAuthor affiliationsCited references Francis Soc Sci + HumY (All, as from 97)N CSA Ling & LangYN EconlitYN IBSS Social SciYN LISA Libr & Inf SciY (as from 2006)N PsychinfoY (all authors)Y Sociolog AbstrY (1 st author only)Y (as from 2002) World Polit AbstrY (1 st author only)Y (as from 2001) Historical AbstrNY America: Hist & LifeNY ERIC: Educat ResY (1 st author only)N (Y in full texts) SOLIS Social SciY (in Author field)N

24 Special bibliographies: Conclusions Some interesting databases for field-specific studies In most databases no author affiliations and no cited references Mainly journal articles covered

25 Citation Indexes: Major recent developments DatabaseJournalsBooks Web of Science Adds in 2009 1,500 regional journals (many SSH, from ERIH lists) ? ScopusAdds 3,500 titles (1,500 in April 2009); 2,250 from ERIH lists (all A, 1,000 B, 250 C) Adds meta-data on highly cited book titles GoogleFurther enhancements of Google Scholar Expands Google Book Search; Link with Google Scholar?

26 Google Book Search – 1 Aims: Enhance the users ability to access and read books Opportunity for authors and publishers to make their books available. Two sources: Partner program: Publishers and authors Library project: partner libraries

27 Google Book Search – 2 For books protected by copyright, search results are limited to meta-data and selected (random) text passages Books out-of-copyright may be read online in full length or downloaded Cited references not a part of meta-data GBS books as targets in Google Scholar

28 OAPEN - Open Access Publishing in European Networks OAPEN: European scholarly university presses active in SSH and in book publishing EU funded project aims to improve quantity, visibility and usability of high-quality OA content. Uses Driver infrastructure

29 European Institutional repositories EU funded project DRIVER aims to establish a cohesive, pan-European infrastructure of Digital Repositories Driver Inventory study (2006): 230 European institutions have a repository (=10-20%?) These cover 37 % of institutions recent publication output (based on questionnaire) 18 % of materials is books /chapters 30 % of materials is SSH

30 Driver Inventory study (2006) Type% Textual research materials Meta-data only61 % Full texts29 % Non textual materials Images, videos, music, primary data sets 5 % OtherLearning materials, student papers 5 %

31 Institutions need research management systems for …. National research assessment exercises (e.g., UK REF) Funding parameters at a national level International rankings and benchmarking Positioning in European Research Area Information for general public and clients Internal research management at central and departmental level

32 3. Actual use of bibliometric indicators in research assessment In progress

33 Spain: ANEP, ANECA Norway: Norwegian model ObjectiveEvaluation / promotion of individual scholars Distribution of funds across institutions Unit of assessment IndividualsInstitutions IndicatorsNr papers weighted with impact factor of JCR/WoS covered journals Nr publications weighted with peer ratings of sources and their publishers

34 Flanders: Distribution of funds across institutions Current funding parameters based on Web of Science Creation database of scientific-scholarly SSH publications per institution Institutions establish selection criteria for sources and document types Operational in 2011

35 4. Actual practices in dealing with non-publication outputs

36 The UK Research RAE 2008 Research: original investigation undertaken in order to gain knowledge and understanding Scholarship: creation, development and maintenance of the intellectual infrastructure of subjects and disciplines

37 The UK Research RAE 2008 Panel O Research outputs must be verifiable and relate to research, and may include: New materials Devices Images Products and buildings Intellectual property (patents or other forms) Performances, exhibits or events Work published in non-print media

38 RAE 2008 submissions: criteria Submitted research outputs must be verifiable and relate to research Non-text output: evidence of their dissemination in the public domain and of their research contents are required

39 Australia: ERA non-publication outputs Applied research Registered designs (if clear link with research) Esteem: Editorial roles and contribution to prestigious works of reference Curatorial role of a prestigious event

40 Yardsticks Formal yardsticks for scholarly non- publication output are missing in RAE and ERA Prestigious events, performance outlets, media might be ranked according to prestige

41 5. Options for creating a comprehensive database of SSH outputs

42 Options 1.Combine European special SSH bibliographies 2.Further enhance SSH coverage of Web of Science and / or Scopus (books!) 3.Stimulate creation and standardization of institutional research management systems 4.Further stimulate institutional repositories

43 Four options: discussion FeasibilityProblems Combine special European SSH bibliographies Costly; current databases to be restructured Expand SSH coverage of WoS and Scopus Feasible as long as there is a market for it Sufficiently comprehensive? (books!) Stimulate institut. res. management systems EU initiative fits into concept of Europ Res Area Pre-selection of public. types necessary? Stimulate institutional repositories

44 Further research Exploration of Google Scholar / Book Search Further information-scientific and sociological studies of SSH fields How to discriminate between scholarly and non-scholarly sources (pre-selection criteria)

45 END

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