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22 April, 2014 The Knowledge Economy: Democratisation, Distributive Justice or Domination? Professor Louise Morley Centre for Higher Education and Equity.

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Presentation on theme: "22 April, 2014 The Knowledge Economy: Democratisation, Distributive Justice or Domination? Professor Louise Morley Centre for Higher Education and Equity."— Presentation transcript:

1 22 April, 2014 The Knowledge Economy: Democratisation, Distributive Justice or Domination? Professor Louise Morley Centre for Higher Education and Equity Research (CHEER) University of Sussex, UK

2 22 April, 2014 The University of the Past Elitism Exclusion Inequalities

3 22 April, 2014 The University of Today Diversified Liquified Expanded Globalised Borderless/ Edgeless Marketised/ Corporatised Hierarchically Ordered Economically Theorised Technologised Neo-liberalised Privatised?

4 22 April, 2014 Turbulence and Torpor Caught between: Hyper-modernisation Archaism Negotiating: Nostalgia Frenzy Inertia Anxiety Tensions between: Desire Desiccation Democratisation Distributive justice

5 22 April, 2014 Futurology Whose imaginary is informing policy? (Ball and Exley, 2009) Do policy discourses limit or generate creative thinking about the future of universities? Are social inequalities resistant to hypermodernisation forces? Is the University of the Future the University of the Past?

6 22 April, 2014 Why Democratise Higher Education? Major site of: Knowledge formation & dissemination Opportunity structures for social mobility Worker production for other influential institutions Identity formation Symbolic control (Holmwood, 2011; Morley, 2011) Fears that: Economic crisis = Democratic crisis = Austerity driven affective ecologies. Punitive moral economy. Calls for: Cognitive & epistemic justice (Fricker, 2007) Development of a sociology of absences (Santos, 1999) (2007/8- ECU, 2009).

7 22 April, 2014 Toxic Correlations/ Access and Social Identities 4% of UK poorer young people enter higher education. (David et al, 2009; Hills Report, 2009). 5% of this group enter UKs top 7 universities (HESA, 2010). More black young men in prison in UK and US than in HE. Attainment gap in UK HE highest between black and white students ( Ruebain, 2012). Universities = hereditary domain of financially advantaged (Gopal, 2010). Steep Social Gradients

8 22 April, 2014 Reproducing Power and Privilege? Graduates from UK elite universities control: the media politics the civil service the arts the City law medicine big business the armed forces the judiciary think tanks ( Monbiot, 2010)

9 22 April, 2014 Democratisation = Representational Space? Norm- saturated policy narratives add more under-represented groups into current higher education systems as students and academic leaders = a form of distributive justice/ smart economics organisational and epistemic transformation a happiness formula (Ahmed, 2010) Gender/ Ethnicity/Social Class = demographic variables (nouns), not in continual production (verbs). Womens increased access = feminisation crisis discourse. HE products and processes = gender neutral. Power and privilege = under- theorisation. Redistributive measures = social engineering. Equity / Affirmative Action = threat to excellence. Knowledge Economy= gendered networks (Walby, 2012)

10 22 April, 2014 Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania Measuring: Sociological variables of gender, age, socio- economic status (SES) In Relation to: Educational Outcomes: access, retention and achievement. In Relation to: 4 Programmes of Study in each university. 2 Public and 2 private universities. Quantitative Data -100 Equity Scorecards Qualitative Data - 200 interviews with students and 200 with staff and policymakers. (Morley et al. 2010) (

11 22 April, 2014 Equity Scorecard: Access to Level 200 on 4 Programmes at a Public University in Tanzania According to Age, Gender and Socio Economic Status

12 22 April, 2014 Equity Scorecard: Access to Level 200 on 4 Programmes at a Public University in Ghana According to Age, Gender and Socio Economic Status (2009) Programme % of Students on the Programme Women Low SES Age 30 or over Mature and Low SES Women and low SES Women 30 or over Poor Mature Women B.Commerce 29.921.665.820. B. Management Studies 47.062.946.300.001.683.360.00 B.Education (Primary) 36.368.0865.668.082.0221.212.02 B.Sc. Optometry 30.770.00

13 22 April, 2014 Reverse Discrimination 17 men and 9 women out of 100 students in Ghana Gender difference = preferential treatment for women. Womens failure = evidence of lack of academic abilities/ preparedness for HE. Womens achievement = attributed to womens favoured position in gendered academic markets. Women constructed as: Corrupt/ fraudulent learners. Not entitled to higher education. Post-feminist strategic agents, not victims. Deploying corporeal style to manipulate essentialised male desire. ( Morley, 2011)

14 22 April, 2014 Democratising Higher Education Leadership Are women desiring, dismissing or being disqualified from academic leadership? Who self-identifies/ is identified by existing power elites, as having leadership legitimacy? Is leader identity still constituted through gendered power relations? Do cultural scripts for leaders coalesce or collide with normative gender performances? How does gender continue to escape organisational logic/rationalities?

15 22 April, 2014 The Gendered Research Economy: Misrecognition and Misogyny Women Cast as Unreliable Knowers Women less likely to be: Journal editors/cited in top-rated journals (Tight, 2008). Principal investigators (EC, 2011) On research boards Awarded large grants Awarded research prizes ( Nikiforova, 2011)

16 22 April, 2014 Absences and Aspirations in the Global Academy Australia (Fitzgerald, 2011) Canada (Acker, 2012) China (Chen, 2012) Finland (Husu, 2000) Ghana (Ohene, 2010) Guyana (Austin, 2002) Ireland (Lynch, 2010) Kenya (Onsongo, 2004) Nigeria (Odejide, 2007) Norway (Benediktsdottir, 2008) Pakistan (Rab, 2010) Papua New Guinea (Sar & Wilkins, 2001) South Africa (Shackleton et al., 2006) South Korea (Kim et al., 2010) Sri Lanka (Gunawardena et al., 2006) Sweden (Peterson, 2011) Tanzania (Bhalalusesa, 1998) Turkey (Özkanli, 2009) Uganda (Kwesiga & Ssendiwala, 2006) UK (Deem, 2003) USA (Bonner, 2006)

17 22 April, 2014 Accounting for Absences/ Expanding the Theoretical Lexicon Gendered Division of Labour Gender Bias/ Misrecognition Management & Masculinity Greedy Organisations Womens Missing Agency/ Deficit Internal Conversations/ Resilience (Morley, 2012, 2013)

18 22 April, 2014 Leaderism Evolution of Managerialism? Social and organisational technology Disguises the corporatisation and values shift Diverts attention to personal qualities, skills for organisational transformation. Certain Subjectivities Values Behaviours Dispositions Characteristics Can Strategically overcome institutional inertia Outflank resistance/ recalcitrance Provide direction for new university futures However The leaderist turn is not innocent Transformative leadership is value-laden. (OReilly and Reed, 2010, 2011).

19 22 April, 2014 Vertical Career Success or Incarceration in an Identity Cage? Leadership Can Involve Multiple/ conflicting affiliations Unstable engagements with hierarchy & power (Cross & Goldenberg, 2009) Working with resistance & recalcitrance Colonising colleagues subjectivities towards the goals of managerially inspired discourses An affective load/ identity work Managing self-doubt, conflict, anxiety, disappointment & occupational stress (Acker, 2012; Watson, 2009) Women in velvet ghettos (Guillaume & Pochic, 2009), or glass cliffs (Ryan & Haslam, 2005) or adjunct roles (Davies, 1996) Restricting, rather than building capacity and creativity.

20 22 April, 2014 Democratisation in Higher Education … IS NOT Access to knowledge and knowledge production systems and organisations monopolised/ dominated by the elite. Women/minorities = accessing some aspects of the knowledge economy. Lack capital (economic, political, social and symbolic) to redefine the requirements of the field (Corsun & Costen, 2001). COULD INVOLVE Discovering new conceptual grammars to include equalities, identities and affective domains. Considering the collective/ public as well as the private benefits of knowledge/ HE. Including more accountability on social inequalities e.g. global league tables. Contributing to wealth/ opportunity distribution as well as to wealth creation. Undoing gender (Butler, 2004)

21 22 April, 2014 Follow Up? Morley, L. (2012) "The Rules of the Game: Women and the Leaderist Turn in Higher Education " Gender and Education. 25(1). Morley, L. (2013) International Trends in Womens Leadership in Higher Education In, T. Gore, and Stiasny, M (eds) Going Global. London, Emerald Press. Morley, L. (2013) Women and Higher Education Leadership: Absences and Aspirations. Stimulus Paper for the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education. CHEER

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