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**Non-parametric tests, part A:**

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**Two types of statistical test: Parametric tests:**

Based on assumption that the data have certain characteristics or "parameters": Results are only valid if (a) the data are normally distributed; (b) the data show homogeneity of variance; (c) the data are measurements on an interval or ratio scale. group 1: M = 8.19 (SD= 1.33), group 2: M = (SD = 9.18)

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Nonparametric tests: Make no assumptions about the data's characteristics. Use if any of the three properties below are true: (a) the data are not normally distributed (e.g. skewed); (b) the data show inhomogeneity of variance; (c) the data are measured on an ordinal scale (ranks).

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**Examples of parametric tests and their non-parametric equivalents:**

Parametric test: Non-parametric counterpart: Pearson correlation Spearman's correlation (No equivalent test) Chi-Square test Independent-means t-test Mann-Whitney test Dependent-means t-test Wilcoxon test One-way Independent Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Kruskal-Wallis test One-way Repeated-Measures ANOVA Friedman's test

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**Non-parametric tests for comparing two groups or conditions:**

(a) The Mann-Whitney test: Used when you have two conditions, each performed by a separate group of subjects. Each subject produces one score. Tests whether there is a statistically significant difference between the two groups.

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**Mann-Whitney test, step-by-step:**

Does it make any difference to students' comprehension of statistics whether the lectures are in English or in Serbo-Croat? Group 1: statistics lectures in English. Group 2: statistics lectures in Serbo-Croat. DV: lecturer intelligibility ratings by students (0 = "unintelligible", 100 = "highly intelligible"). Ratings - so Mann-Whitney is appropriate.

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**Rank all the scores together, regardless of group.**

English group (raw scores) English group (ranks) Serbo-croat group (raw scores) Serbo-croat group (ranks) 18 17 15 10.5 13 8 12 5.5 16 12.5 11 3.5 10 1.5 Mean: SD: 14.63 2.97 13.22 2.33 Median: 15.5 Step 1: Rank all the scores together, regardless of group.

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**Revision of how to Rank scores:**

Same method as for Spearman's correlation. (a) Lowest score gets rank of “1”; next lowest gets “2”; and so on. (b) Two or more scores with the same value are “tied”. (i) Give each tied score the rank it would have had, had it been different from the other scores. (ii) Add the ranks for the tied scores, and divide by the number of tied scores. Each of the ties gets this average rank. (iii) The next score after the set of ties gets the rank it would have obtained, had there been no tied scores. e.g. raw score: “original” rank: “actual” rank:

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Step 2: Add up the ranks for group 1, to get T1. Here, T1 = 83. Add up the ranks for group 2, to get T2. Here, T2 = 70. Step 3: N1 is the number of subjects in group 1; N2 is the number of subjects in group 2. Here, N1 = 8 and N2 = 9. Step 4: Call the larger of these two rank totals Tx. Here, Tx = 83. Nx is the number of subjects in this group. Here, Nx = 8.

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Step 5: Find U: Nx (Nx + 1) U = N1 * N Tx 2 In our example, 8 * (8 + 1) U = * U = = 25

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If there are unequal numbers of subjects - as in the present case - calculate U for both rank totals and then use the smaller U. In the present example, for T1, U = 25, and for T2, U = 47. Therefore, use 25 as U. Step 6: Look up the critical value of U, (e.g. with the table on my website), taking into account N1 and N2. If our obtained U is equal to or smaller than the critical value of U, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that our two groups do differ significantly.

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**Here, the critical value of U for N1 = 8 and N2 = 9 is 15.**

Our obtained U of 25 is larger than this, and so we conclude that there is no significant difference between our two groups. Conclusion: ratings of lecturer intelligibility are unaffected by whether the lectures are given in English or in Serbo-Croat.

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(b) The Wilcoxon test: Used when you have two conditions, both performed by the same subjects. Each subject produces two scores, one for each condition. Tests whether there is a statistically significant difference between the two conditions.

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**Wilcoxon test, step-by-step:**

Does background music affect the mood of factory workers? Eight workers: each tested twice. Condition A: background music. Condition B: silence. DV: workers’ mood rating (0 = "extremely miserable", 100 = "euphoric"). Ratings, so use Wilcoxon test.

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**Rank the differences, ignoring their sign. Lowest = 1. **

Worker: Silence Music Difference Rank 1 15 10 5 4.5 2 12 14 -2 2.5 3 11 Ignore 4 16 6 13 7 -1 8 Mean: 12.5, SD: 2.56 Mean: 9.13, SD: 4.36 Median: 12.5 Median: 10.5 Step 1: Find the difference between each pair of scores, keeping track of the sign of the difference. Step 2: Rank the differences, ignoring their sign. Lowest = 1. Tied scores dealt with as before. Ignore zero difference-scores.

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Step 3: Add together the positive-signed ranks. = 22. Add together the negative-signed ranks. = 6. Step 4: "W" is the smaller sum of ranks; W = 6. N is the number of differences, omitting zero differences. N = = 7. Step 5: Use table (e.g. on my website) to find the critical value of W, for your N. Your obtained W has to be equal to or smaller than this critical value, for it to be statistically significant.

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**The critical value of W (for an N of 7) is 2.**

Our obtained W of 6 is bigger than this. Our two conditions are not significantly different. Conclusion: workers' mood appears to be unaffected by presence or absence of background music.

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**Mann-Whitney using SPSS - procedure:**

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**Mann-Whitney using SPSS - procedure:**

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**Mann-Whitney using SPSS - output:**

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**Wilcoxon using SPSS - procedure:**

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**Wilcoxon using SPSS - procedure:**

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**Wilcoxon using SPSS - output:**

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