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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Stability and change in personality They must often change who would be constant in happiness.

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Presentation on theme: "Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Stability and change in personality They must often change who would be constant in happiness."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Stability and change in personality They must often change who would be constant in happiness or wisdom Confucius, Analects

3 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Lecture contents Stage theories of personality development Freud Erikson Types and indices of change or stability Illustrative longitudinal studies

4 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Stage theories of development Criteria especially associated with particular stages. Stages typically occur within given time limits. Fixed typical sequence or progression through stages.

5 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Freuds psychosexual stages Oral(<2) Oral and Narcissistic personalities Anal(2-4) Anal personalities Phallic(4-5) Oedipus/Electra complex (Latency) Genital(13-ish) Genital (healthy) personality

6 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Oral Personality: Receiving or giving Oral Incorporative Over-indulged Swallow anything Optimistic Gullible Passive Oral Aggressive Frustrated Biting remarks Pessimistic Suspicious Manipulative Narcissistic Fully egocentric

7 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Anal personality: Withholding or giving Anal Retentive Frustration Controlled Stingy Orderly Meticulous Precise Anal Expulsive Overindulgence Expressive Overly generous Messy Dirty Vague

8 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Eriksons psychosocial stages of development Positive outcome (If not excessive) Negative outcome Trust Mistrust Autonomy Shame and doubt Initiative Guilt Industry Inferiority Adolescence 5. Identity Identity confusion Young adulthood 6. Intimacy Isolation Middle adulthood 7. Generativity Stagnation Old age 8. Integrity Despair

9 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Critique of stage theories of development + Useful in describing usual time and sequence of (especially key stages in) development + Useful in identifying sensitive periods in which effects may be especially lasting or resistant to change + Useful to list characteristics difficult to notice by their absence - Usual time and sequence of development rarely universal - Much change incremental and non-progressive

10 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality What is personality change? What about you would have to change for you no longer to consider yourself to be you? Pervin (2003, p. 196) Absolute and relative change Quantitative and qualitative change Continuous and discontinuous change Genotypic (latent) and phenotypic (expressive) change Percevied (or measured) and actual change

11 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Type and indices of continuity and change Differential Individual differences Correlation Absolute Absolute criteria Comparisons of group means Structural Among patterns of variables within samples across time Comparison of covariation patterns across factor analyses Ipsative Structural continuity or change at individual level (e.g., Block, 1971) Coherence Among latent characteristics

12 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Three illustrative longitudinal studies Magnussons Swedish Study of Individual Development and Adjustment (IDA) Jack Blocks Lives through time (1971) The Minnesota Parent-Child Project

13 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Magnussons Swedish Study of IDA (1965+): Girls Early-maturing, relative to late-maturing, girls, at 15: More multiple drunkenness More conflict with adults Less interested in school and career More focused on social relationships (often with older people) Most behavioural and social differences reduced or gone by adulthood, but: Married earlier Had kids earlier Left school and started work earlier

14 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Magnussons Swedish Study of IDA (1965+): Boys Relative to boys with poor peer-relations at 13, boys who were also aggressive and hyperactive at 13: Low levels of adrenaline in urine at 13 Indicates low physiological reactivity Thus, indicates low perceptions of stress and threat Increased risk of later alcohol problems Increased risk of later persistent criminality

15 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Jack Blocks Lives through time (1971) Variety of data, in different formats California Adult Q-Set (CAQ) to Q-sort, e.g., interviews, on personality traits (e.g., talkative, skeptical, needy). Differential (individual difference) stability from Jnr-high to 30s Sample mean correlation (.75 between Jnr. and Snr. High) masks great individual range (-.01 to 1.00) Sex differences Males greater narrowing of interests and humour into adulthood Females greater ambition and sympathising into adulthood

16 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality Attachment styles (Bowlby; Ainsworth) Securely attached Insecurely attatched: Anxious-avoidant Anxious-resistent (Anxious-disorganised)

17 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality The Minnesota Parent-Child Project (1974+) Sroufe and colleagues Individual differences: Relative to insecurely attached, securely attached preschoolers: (Traits) Less dependent Greater ego-resilience (Social responsiveness) More active participation with peer group Greater empathy Better response to social rebuff (Social elicitation) Elicited warm behaviour from teachers

18 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 6: Stability and Change in Personality


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