Presentation on theme: "Headaches September 2012 NICE clinical guideline 150 Clinical case scenarios for group discussion."— Presentation transcript:
Headaches September 2012 NICE clinical guideline 150 Clinical case scenarios for group discussion
What this presentation covers Introduction to clinical case scenarios Background NICE Pathway The cases NHS Evidence Find out more
Clinical case scenarios Each scenario includes details of the patients initial presentation The clinical decisions about diagnosis and management are then examined using a question and answer approach Relevant recommendations from the NICE guideline are quoted in the notes and additional information and detail from the full guideline is added to answers These clinical case scenarios form part of a package of education and learning materials which include an Academic detailing aid and Diagnosis poster to support CG150, Headaches.Academic detailing aid Diagnosis poster
Background: Headaches Headaches one of the most common neurological problems presented to GPs and neurologists. Most common primary headache disorders are tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache Improved recognition of primary headaches will help the generalist clinician to manage headaches more effectively, allow better targeting of treatment and potentially improve quality of life and reduce unnecessary investigations for people with headache
NICE Pathway The NICE Headaches Pathway shows all the recommendations in the Headaches guideline Click here to go to NICE Pathways website
Learning objectives The learning objectives for these clinical case scenarios are to improve knowledge on: how to manage acute migraine best practice for migraine prophylaxis (including migraine prophylaxis for women and girls of childbearing potential) treating cluster headaches, including the key points about ordering home and ambulatory oxygen where to find information for patients on acute migraine, migraine prophylaxis and cluster headaches.
Case scenario 1 Joseph, acute migraine (paediatric)
Presentation Joseph is a 14-year-old boy. He attends your clinic accompanied by his mum, Claire. He presents with a 2-month history of headaches that he describes as banging and that make his head very very sore. He says that in the past 2 months he has had 6 of these headaches. He also says that light hurts his eyes when he has the headaches. He does not feel nauseous or vomit during the headaches. Claire tells you that when Joseph has the headaches he is unable to go to school and that the headaches last from 2 to 4 hours. She gives Joseph paracetamol and if that doesnt work she also gives him ibuprofen. Joseph reports that this combination of medication helps but that it still hurts a lot until the headache eventually goes completely. Joseph and Claire ask if Josephs headaches are migraines and if there is anything more he can take to ease the pain and reduce the amount of time he is taking off school.
1.1 Question Based on the history provided, and using the diagnosis poster as a quick reference to recommendations in section 1.1 and 1.2 of the guideline, you diagnose migraine without aura.diagnosis poster Claire asks what this means for Joseph. How would you answer this?
1.1 Answer You would explain the diagnosis to Claire and Joseph and reassure them that a serious underlying cause is unlikely, based on Josephs history and your examination of him, which showed no abnormalities. You would tell them that migraines are a well-recognised problem although what causes them is not known for certain. You would reassure Claire and Joseph that you appreciate the large impact the headaches are having on Josephs life. You would give them written information about migraine in a format suitable for both, and include information about support organisations (see information in notes). Given that Joseph is likely to have recurrent migraines that will need treatment, you would explain the risk of medication overuse headache.
1.2 Question For acute management of Josephs migraine, you would tell Joseph and Claire that Joseph could have nasal sumatriptan, to take along with a non steroidal anti-inflammatory or paracetamol. However, Claire is concerned about Joseph taking 2 drugs and asks if there is an option for him to take just 1 drug. How would you answer this? At the time of publication of these cases (September 2012), only nasal sumatriptan had a UK marketing authorisation for this indication in people aged under 18 years
1.2 Answer You would tell Claire and Joseph that adding nasal sumatriptan, to paracetamol or a non steroidal anti-inflammatory would be the most effective option for relieving his migraines, but that Joseph could try taking just nasal sumatriptan to see whether it works better than paracetamol or ibuprofen. You would explain that the triptan would come as a nasal spray because it is not usually prescribed in tablet or capsule form for people aged under 18. You would tell Claire and Joseph that the other option would be monotherapy with either paracetamol or NSAID and you would ensure that the dose was optimised. However, since Joseph has already tried both of these drugs and they didnt work well enough, triptan would be a suitable option for him to try next.
1.3 Question Claire asks what they should do if the nasal triptan doesnt work and whether there are there alternative medications. a) How would you answer this? b) What tool could you use to help assess the effectiveness of the nasal triptan
1.3 Answer a)You would explain that Joseph should try the sumatriptan nasal spray for at least 3 headaches because it isnt possible to tell whether its working based on just 1 headache. If it still doesnt work well enough then they should return to you and you would offer combination therapy with nasal sumatriptan, and a non steroidal anti-inflammatory. You explain that it is a case of finding out which type of treatment works best for Joseph. b)You could give Joseph a headache diary containing prompts for him to record the frequency, duration and severity of his headaches as well as his response to the triptan. You would explain to Joseph and Claire that keeping the diary will help them to learn more about his migraines (See next slide)
1.3 Answer (headache diary) Headache diaries are more accurate than recall and allow patterns of events to be more clearly seen. They also play an important role in acknowledging the impact of headache. Keeping the diary will help the patient to learn more about their migraines, for example whether they occur in patterns and whether they are triggered by anything in particular. The diary will also enable them to record any changes in how often the migraines happen, how painful they are, how well the treatments for them are working and any side effects from the treatments. You would use this information in the standard review you carry out after starting or changing treatment.
1.4 Question Claire and Joseph thank you for your help and leave. As you are reflecting on Joseph's case, you think about other treatment options that might be suitable for Joseph if the triptan nasal spray doesnt work well enough for him. What other treatment options would be available?
1.4 Answer You could try combination of the nasal sumatriptan with paracetamol. Alternatively you might then consider trying a different formulation of nasal triptan, triptan tablets or melts, but you would prefer not to prescribe these for Joseph because they are usually only given to people aged 18 and over. In addition to different formulations of nasal triptan, or triptan tablets or melts, you might consider adding an anti-emetic to Josephs treatment, taking into account the risk of side effects and Joseph and Claires preferences. At the time of publication of these cases (September 2012), only nasal sumatriptan had a UK marketing authorisation for this indication in people aged under 18 years
Case scenario 2 Anaka, migraine prophylaxis
Presentation Anaka is a 28-year-old woman who was diagnosed with migraine with aura 6 months ago. She has, on average, 1 migraine attack per week, for which she takes triptan, an NSAID and an anti- emetic. Because Anaka has migraine about 4 times per month, she is unlikely to develop medication overuse headache. You are therefore happy with her current treatment plan. However, during an attack, she is unable to work or continue her normal daily activities. She also worries a lot about when the next attack is going to happen and their frequency causes her to take a lot of time off work.
2.1 Question You note from Anaka's records that other than the medication mentioned above she is not taking any other forms of medication. You want to confirm that she is not a taking combined hormonal contraceptive for contraception purposes. Why is this?
2.1 Answer There is an increased risk of ischaemic stroke in people with migraine with aura. This risk is increased in women using combined hormonal contraception. Anaka confirms that she currently uses contraception but not a combined hormonal contraceptive.
2.2 Question Anaka asks if there is anything that can be done to reduce the frequency of her migraine attacks.
2.2 Answer You would tell Anaka about the option of prophylactic treatment. Explain that prophylactic treatments prevent, rather than cure, a condition, and that for migraines they aim to reduce the frequency, severity and duration of the attacks. You explain the risks and benefits of prophylactic treatment – ensuring she understands her risk of migraine recurrence and severity, with and without prophylaxis, and her risk of adverse effects.
2.3 Question The NICE guideline recommends offering topiramate or propranolol for the prophylactic treatment of migraine. When discussing the most suitable prophylaxis for Anaka what important information do you need to tell her about topiramate?
2.3 Answer Given that Anaka is of child bearing potential, it is important for her to be aware that topiramate is associated with a risk of fetal malformations. Additionally, as Anaka has confirmed that she is currently using contraception, she needs to be aware that there is potential for topiramate to impair the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. With Anaka's consent you arrange an appointment for her with the contraceptive service so she can talk about the options for suitable contraception if she were to take topiramate.
2.4 Question Following consultation with the contraceptive service, Anaka decides that she does not want to use any of the contraceptives that were recommended as suitable and reliable for use with topiramate. You therefore suggest propranolol for migraine prophylaxis. a) How would you assess the effectiveness of the propranolol? b) When would you review the need to continue this prophylaxis?
2.4 (a) Answer a) You would provide Anaka with a headache diary that contains prompts to record the frequency, duration and severity of her headaches as well as her response to the propranolol. Headache diaries are more accurate than relying on a persons memory, and allow patterns of events to be more clearly seen. Diaries also play an important role in acknowledging the impact of headaches. You would advise Anaka to complete the diary in order to: understand any patterns or triggers that may cause her symptoms; be more alert to changes in the regularity or severity of her attacks; and learn the effectiveness of any new medications she takes. It will also help inform the standard review process, to assess the treatments effectiveness and the presence of side effects after starting or changing a treatment plan. See next slide for answer 2.4 (b)
2.4 (b) Answer b) Continuing treatment when it is no longer needed puts the person at risk of having side effects and drug interactions. Experts agree that many people can stop prophylaxis after 6 months of treatment and continue to benefit from the prophylactic treatment. Therefore, you would review Anakas need to continue prophylactic treatment at 6 months.
2.5 Question Anaka asks if there is anything else she can do or take, such as a natural remedy, which could help reduce her migraine intensity. How would you address this?
2.5 Answer You would tell Anaka that taking riboflavin (400 mg once a day) may help to reduce her migraine frequency and intensity. You would tell her that products containing riboflavin can be purchased from pharmacies and health food stores. You could also tell Anaka that if propranolol is unsuitable or ineffective you will consider offering her a course of acupuncture.
2.6 Question Anaka tells you that her mum also takes treatment to prevent migraines, but that she takes amitriptyline. Anaka says amitriptyline works for her mum and asks why she has not been offered it. How would you answer this question?
2.6 Answer You would tell her that, following a recent review, NICE (a national organisation that advises the NHS about the effective use of drugs) recommended that prophylaxis with topiramate or propranalol should be offered first and if those did not work then acupuncture or gabapentin should be offered. NICE recommended that if someone was already having treatment with amitriptyline and it was working then they could continue with that treatment.
2.7 Question If Anaka wants to become pregnant in the future, but still needs migraine prophylaxis, what should you do?
2.7 Answer Migraine without aura often improves during pregnancy. However, migraine with aura is more likely to continue throughout pregnancy. If Anna becomes pregnant you should therefore assess whether she needs prophylaxis during her pregnancy. If she does, then you would seek specialist advice. This could be advice over the telephone to avoid delaying a prescription that would otherwise require a referral. You would also review and discuss her use of triptan, NSAIDs and anti- emetics, because of the risks associated with these medications during pregnancy.
2.8 Question Anaka asks you if there is any reading she can do to learn more about her condition. a) In your discussion with Anaka, what information and support would you provide as a minimum? b) What further information would you provide to Anaka?
2.8 Answer a) As a minimum, you would explain to Anaka about her diagnosis and reassure her that other pathology has been excluded. You would reassure Anaka that this type of headache is a well- recognised problem and that you understand that it is having a big impact on her life. b) You would provide Anaka with information (in a format suitable for her) about headache disorders, including information about support groups (see supporting information in notes).
Case scenario 3 Malcolm, cluster headache
Presentation Malcolm is a 31-year-old man. He has a history of severe headaches, which he says cause him the worst pain hes ever felt. When he gets these headaches, he has pain on 1 side of his head, around his eye and along the side of his face. He also experiences drooping or swelling of the eyelid, watery eye and nasal congestion, on the same side as the headache Malcolm experienced the severe headache for the first time 2 weeks ago for which he went to accident and emergency, where he was given a CT scan. The CT scan was normal and you have been asked to evaluate Malcolm. Malcolm tells you that, since his first severe headache 2 weeks ago, he has experienced 6 more headaches. He says that on average his severe headaches last from 30 to 90 minutes. Based on Malcolm's history and using the diagnosis poster as a quick reference to recommendations in section 1.1 and 1.2 of the guideline you diagnose him with cluster headache.diagnosis poster
3.1 Question What advice and support can you offer Malcolm about his diagnosis?
3.1 Answer At a minimum, you would explain the diagnosis and reassure Malcolm that other pathology has been excluded. You would also talk about the options for management (see case continued) and reassure him that you recognise these severe headaches are having a big impact on him. You would also provide Malcolm with information about cluster headache in a format suitable for him and include information about support organisations (see information in notes)
3.2 Question When you ask Malcolm about how his attacks have been since his admission to the emergency department, he becomes upset and says that that they are very painful. He asks if there is any more that can be done to reduce the pain during attacks. What interventions could help Malcolm during an attack?
3.2 Answer You would offer Malcolm subcutaneous or nasal triptan. You need to make Malcolm aware that the nasal triptan does not have UK marketing authorisation for this indication (correct at time of publication of these case scenarios in September 2012). Malcolm is concerned about injecting himself; therefore, you decide to offer him nasal triptan. You document that Malcolm has consented to this treatment. You highlight that, if he is not receiving adequate relief with the nasal triptan, you will meet with Malcolm again and talk about subcutaneous triptan. See next slide for answer 3.2 continued
3.2 Answer continued You would also assess Malcolm's medical history and note that he has no history of respiratory disease or COPD. You would offer Malcolm home and ambulatory oxygen. As required, you would explain that during an attack he will need to use a non-rebreathing mask and reservoir bag, and that the oxygen will be running at a flow rate of at least 12 litres per minute. The home oxygen is for use if he has an attack at home. The ambulatory oxygen is for him to take out and use if he has an attack while he is away from home (recognising that attacks happen at unpredictable intervals). You would explain that this will allow him to treat his attack at the earliest opportunity.
3.3 Question You are prescribing Malcolm the nasal triptan. How much should you prescribe?
3.3 Answer Because of the frequent nature of attacks during a bout of cluster headaches, it is important that Malcolm has an adequate supply of medication to reduce the pain. You would calculate this according to his history of cluster bouts and based on the manufacturers maximum daily dose.
3.4 Question How will you order the oxygen for Malcolm?
3.4 Answer To order the oxygen you must complete a home oxygen order form (HOOF). There are sections for ambulatory oxygen and long term or short burst oxygen. At the time of publication of these case scenarios (September 2012) the HOOF was available at oxygen-order-form. The current HOOF contains cluster headache as an indication.http://www.pcc.nhs.uk/home- oxygen-order-form As well as ordering the oxygen, it is important to order the non- rebreathing mask (cushioned). It is essential that all the necessary equipment has been delivered to Malcolm to make sure he receives the prescribed oxygen.
3.5 Question What prophylaxis for cluster headache could you offer Malcolm?
3.5 Answer In order to reduce the frequency, severity and duration of attacks, you consider offering Malcolm verapamil. However, because of your lack of experience in using verapamil for cluster headache, you consult a colleague who is a GP with a special interest in headaches or neurology (or a consultant neurologist) for guidance in using this medication before prescribing it.
3.6 Question What medications would you not offer Malcolm for the acute management of his cluster headache attacks?
3.6 Answer You would not offer paracetamol, NSAIDS, oral triptans, ergots or opioids as there is no evidence to suggest that they would have any clinical benefit in the treatment of cluster headache.
Case scenario 4 Nisha, acute migraine (adult)
Presentation You are an out-of-hours GP and have been called out to visit Nisha. Nisha is a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with episodic migraine 10 years ago. She is taking topiramate for prophylaxis and takes an NSAID and oral triptan for acute treatment. Nisha currently has a severe migraine with aura that started 60 minutes ago. She took her usual oral triptan and NSAID 50 minutes ago and her migraine has not responded. Nisha has also vomited 6 times during this attack; once just after taking the oral medication.
4.1 Question What other acute migraine treatment can you offer Nisha?
4.1 Answer Given that the oral preparations of NSAID and triptan were not effective for Nisha, you offer her intramuscular metoclopramide or prochlorperazine. You also consider offering Nisha a non-oral NSAID or triptan; however, you decide against this because Nisha has recently taken both of these.
NHS Evidence Visit NHS Evidence for the best available evidence on all aspects of Headaches Click here to go to the NHS Evidence website
Find out more Visit for:www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG150 the guideline Information for the public costing statement and template audit support baseline assessment tool academic detailing aid diagnosis poster
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