What this presentation covers Background Definitions Key priorities for implementation Costs and savings Discussion Find out more
Background Surgical patients are at risk of developing hypothermia at any stage of the perioperative pathway. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a common but preventable complication, which is associated with poor outcomes for patients.
Definitions Preoperative - 1 hour before induction of anaesthesia Intraoperative - the total anaesthesia time Postoperative - 24 hours after entry into the recovery area in the theatre suite Hypothermia - a patient core temperature of below 36.0°C. Comfortably warm - the expected normal temperature range of adult patients Temperature - used to denote core temperature
Patients (and their families and carers) should be informed before and on admission that: staying warm before surgery will lower the risk of postoperative complications the hospital environment may be colder than their own home they should bring additional clothing to help them keep comfortably warm they should tell staff if they feel cold at any time during their hospital stay. Advice for patients
When using any device to measure patient temperature, healthcare professionals should: be aware of, and carry out, any adjustments that need to be made in order to obtain an estimate of core temperature from that recorded at the site of measurement be aware of any such adjustments that are made automatically by the device used. Measuring patient temperature
Each patient should be assessed for their risk of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia and potential adverse consequences before transfer to the theatre suite. Preoperative phase
Patients at higher risk of perioperative hypothermia Some patients are at higher risk of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia; they should be managed accordingly if any two of the following apply: ASA grade II to V preoperative temperature below 36.0°C undergoing combined general and regional anaesthesia undergoing major or intermediate surgery at risk of cardiovascular complications.
If the patients temperature is below 36.0°C in the hour before they leave the ward or emergency department: forced air warming should be started preoperatively on the ward or in the emergency department (unless there is a need to expedite surgery because of clinical urgency) forced air warming should be maintained throughout the intraoperative phase. Preoperative warming
The patients temperature should be measured and documented before induction of anaesthesia and then every 30 minutes until the end of surgery. Induction of anaesthesia should not begin unless the patients temperature is 36.0°C or above. Intraoperative phase
The following patients should be warmed intraoperatively from induction of anaesthesia using a forced air warming device: those at higher risk of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia and who are having anaesthesia for less than 30 minutes those who are having anaesthesia for longer than 30 minutes Intraoperative warming
Warming intravenous fluids Intravenous fluids (500 ml or more) and blood products should be warmed to 37°C using a fluid warming device.
Postoperative phase The patients temperature should be measured and documented on admission to the recovery room and then every 15 minutes Ward transfer should not be arranged unless the patients temperature is 36.0°C or above. If the patients temperature is below 36.0°C, they should be actively warmed using forced air warming until they are discharged from the recovery room or until they are comfortably warm
Costs and savings per 100,000 population Recommendations with significant costs Costs (£ per year) Increased use of forced air warming blankets43,000 Increased warming of IV fluids and blood products 23,000 Estimated cost of implementation66,000 Recommendations with significant savings Savings (£ per year) Expected reduction in surgical site infections*–43,000 Estimated annual net cost of implementation23,000 * Additional savings have been identified that cannot be quantified – full details in the costing report.
Discussion Which key areas of local practice differ from the guideline? To ensure effective implementation: -what equipment is needed? -what are staff training needs? What will the impact be on the average length of patient stay if the guideline is implemented fully? How should Risk and Safety Managers be involved in the implementation of the guideline?
Find out more Visit for:www.nice.org.uk/cg065 Other guideline formats Costing report and template Audit support Implementation advice