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The Language of Maths Stuart de Boer Teacher Dyslexia Action

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Interrelated Areas in the Learning of Maths

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Maths or Literacy ? You go into a shop with £1. You buy two bags of crisps at 25p each and a bar of chocolate at 35p. How much change will you get ?

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Why does the Dyslexic Student Under-Achieve in Maths ? Numeracy problems (tables and four operations) Memory (rote learning does not work) Speed (dyslexic student slower) Concentration (usually poorer than peers) Mis-match of learning/teaching style Undeveloped skills (held back by poor numeracy skills) Anxiety and self esteem (big problem) Literacy problems - failure to read and understand the language of maths

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Aspects of Maths Language READING The ability to read a question correctly (three/there) JARGON The ability to understand the specific vocabulary of maths SYMBOLS The ability to understand the signs and symbols in maths (with a bit of algebra thrown in for good measure)

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The Language of Maths READING symmetrical parallelogram perpendicular spherical consecutive millimetre millilitre congruent quadrilateral equation cylindrical denominator integer approximately evaluate percentage circumference isosceles

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The JARGON of Maths angles and angels multiples LCM factors HCF third even/odd times sums evaluate difference irregular axes (chop chop) origin left angles ? prime place value second hand (on a clock)

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The Jargon of Addition 3 add 4 (or 4 add 3) 3 + 4 ( or 4 + 3) What is 4 more than 3? (or 3 more than 4) What is the total of 3 and 4? (or 4 and 3) What are 3 and 4 altogether? (or 4 and 3) What is the sum of 3 and 4? (or 4 and 3) What is 3 plus 4? (or 4 plus 3) Increase 3 by 4 (or 4 by 3)

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Hidden Addition Language I have 4 CDs and buy 3 more how many do I have now? There are 6 students in the room and another 2 come in, how many are there now ? I have 50p and find 10p how much have I got now ? A plant is 7cm tall and grows 2 cm. How tall is it now ? In the first leg of a football tie the score was 4 – 3 and in the second leg, 1 – 2. What was the aggregate score ?

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The Jargon of Subtraction 7 take away 3 What is left if I take 3 from 7 ? 7 - 3 What is the difference between 3 and 7 ? (or 7 and 3) What is 3 less than 7 ? What is 7 less 3 ? 7 subtract 3 7 minus 3 Decrease 7 by 3

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The Jargon of Multiplication 5 times 2 (and 2 times 5) 5 x 2 ( and 2 x 5) What is the product of 2 and 5 (or 5 and 2) 2 of 5 (or 5 of 2) 2 lots of 5 (or 5 lots of 2) 5 2s (or five twos) 5 groups of 2 (or 2 groups of 5)

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Hidden Multiplication Language How much for 30 litres of petrol at 85p per litre ? How many bottles in a crate of 12 rows by 8 rows How many days in 3 weeks

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The Jargon of Division 12 divided by 3 3 divided into 12 How many 3s in 12 How many groups of 3 in 12 Split 12 into 3 Share 12 by 3 Share 3 into 12 Group 12 into 3s How many times can you subtract 3 from 12

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Hidden Division Language If two pizzas are eaten by eight people, how much does each person get ? A box of contains 24 chocolates. How many each between 3 ? How many will be in each team if there are three teams and 18 students ? How many quarter hour sessions in 3 hours ? Four friends go for a meal. The total cost of the meal is £120 – how much each ?

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The Language of Maths leaves

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The Language of Maths

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The Language of Maths

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3 4

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The Language of Maths O

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346,000,000 Winston Churchill Tony Blair Albert Einstein

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Help for Jargon Recognition – that there may be a problem Card families – to link clue words to meanings/symbols Highlight clue words and symbols – to focus mind in right direction Question analysis techniques - what operations are required and in what order Pictures of Questions – makes multisensory Mnemonics – student generated Apply Common Sense – is answer sensible ?

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Maths Symbols

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More Maths Symbols

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Help for Symbols Recognition – that there may be a problem Card families – to link symbol to meaning Practice at writing – so are clear and distinct from others Mnemonics – preferably student generated Personalised dictionary – useful reference and revision aid

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Numbers and Words Illogical order four fourteen twenty four Logical order 4 14 24 Associated Problems

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1979 3456 448 MCMLXXIX MMMCDLVI CDXLVIII Place Value Appreciation

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Associated Problems Orientation and Direction 6 and 9 + and x Start at left or right ? Brackets priority (cf. literacy) 4 + 5 = b !!!!!

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The Language of Maths Algebra x + 3 = 7 [ ] + 3 = 7 3x + 5 Three times plus five 2(x + 4) = 14 cf 2x + 4 = 14

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Help with Algebra x + 3 = 7

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Help with Algebra 2x + 4 = 14

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Help with Algebra 2(x + 4) = 14

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Help with Algebra Squares X 2

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Help with Algebra Cubes X 3

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Help Summary Recognition of reading, jargon, symbols problems Need for specific literacy help ? Reader for exams Card families Question analysis techniques Mnemonics Apply common sense to answers Symbol (and number) writing practice Personalised dictionary Some concrete assistance

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And Lastly ……… Just how badly can maths be misunderstood ? If you are of a nervous disposition please look away now …..

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Thank you for listening

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The Language of Measurement - Time How long ? When ? What time is it ? Seconds (and sub-divisions) Minutes Hours Days Weeks (+ fortnights) Months Years Decades Centuries Millennia

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Intuitive Time Just a minute Just a moment, half a sec, two ticks Half a sec Half an hour Eastenders Typical film Weeks, months, years

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The Language of Measurement - Length How long How far How big Length Distance Height Along Width Span (of hand or bridge) End to end Millimetres (mm) Centimetres (cm) Metres (m) Kilometres (km) Miles (m)

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Intuitive Length Foot Stride Sports distances e.g. 100metres Football pitch Distances to familiar places

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The Language of Measurement - Capacity Volume How much Amount of Space Millilitres (ml) Cubic Centimetres (cc or cm 3 ) Centilitres (cl) Litres (l) Pints Gallons

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Intuitive Capacity Drinks cans/bottles Cup/mug/beer mug/wine glass Bottles of wine Petrol tank Car engines (note cc/ml confusion)

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The Language of Measurement - Time How long ? When ? What time is it ? Seconds (and sub-divisions) Minutes Hours Days Weeks (+ fortnights) Months Years Decades Centuries Millennia

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The Language of Measurement - Weight How heavy Mass Load Grams (g or gm) Kilogrammes (kg) Tonnes (t) Ounces (oz) Pounds (lb) Stones

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Intuitive Weight Yourself Feathers/lead Postage Cooking/food Gymnasium Brick

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Other Measurements Area Pressure Temperature Humidity Just number e.g shoe sizes

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