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© Loughborough University, 2004 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
© Loughborough University, 2004 Human Needs Chilean economist, Manfred Max-Neef, avoided a hierarchical interpretation of needs He identified nine fundamental needs which are associated with four types of existence –Subsistence –Protection –Affection –Understanding –Participation –Leisure –Creation –Identity –Freedom
© Loughborough University, 2004 Human Needs Only two of these needs require material means to satisfy them - subsistence and protection. Yet we – in industrialised countries – attempt to satisfy them all through material means Max-Neef suggests that the fundamental needs remain constant across time and culture. What changes is the ways in which these needs are satisfied.
© Loughborough University, 2004 Human Needs They exist in 4 different states: –being - registers attributes –having - registers institutions, mechanisms, tools… –doing - registers actions: personal or collective –interacting - registers interactions,time and space The way in which needs are satisfied change across cultures and across time. Max-Neef (1992) devises 5 different types of satisfier.
© Loughborough University, 2004 fundamental human needs being (qualities)having (things)doing (actions)interacting (settings) subsistencephysical & mental healthfood, shelter, workfeed, clothe, rest, workliving environment, social setting protectioncare, adaptability, autonomy social security, health systems, work co-operate, plan, take care of, help social environment, dwelling affectionrespect, sense of humour, generosity, sensuality friendships, family, relationships with nature share, take care of, make love, express emotions privacy, intimate spaces of togetherness understandingcritical capacity, curiosity, intuition literature, teachers, policies educational analyse, study, meditate investigate schools, families, universities, communities participationreceptiveness, dedication, sense of humour responsibilities, duties, work, rights co-operate, dissent, express opinions associations, parties, churches, neighbourhoods leisureimagination, tranquillity, spontaneity games, parties, peace of mind day-dream, remember, relax, have fun landscapes, intimate spaces, places to be alone creationimagination, boldness, inventiveness, curiosity abilities, skills, work, techniques invent, build, design, work, compose, interpret spaces for expression, workshops, audiences identitysense of belonging, self- esteem, consistency language, religions, work, customs, values, norms get to know oneself, grow, commit oneself places one belongs to, everyday settings freedomautonomy, passion, self- esteem, open-mindedness equal rightsdissent, choose, run risks, develop awareness anywhere
© Loughborough University, 2004 Satisfiers Singular-satisfiers – aim to satisfy one need & therefore neutral in the satisfaction of others: –Welfare programmes to provide housing – SUBSISTENCE –Ballot – PARTICIPATION –Gifts – AFFECTION Synergic-satisfiers –the way in which they satisfy a given need, stimulate and contribute to the simultaneous satisfaction of other needs: –Education – UNDERSTANDING – also protection, participation, creation, identity, freedom –Preventative medicine – PROTECTION – understanding, participation, subsistence
© Loughborough University, 2004 Satisfiers Pseudo-satisfiers – elements which stimulate a false sense of satisfaction, e.g.: –Fashion – IDENTITY –Mechanistic medicine (a pill for every ill) – PROTECTION Inhibitors –the way in which they satisfy a given need impairs the possibility of other needs being met: –Television – LEISURE – impairs understanding, creation, identity –Unlimited permissiveness – FREEDOM – impairs protection, affection, identity, participation
© Loughborough University, 2004 Satisfiers Violators – dont satisfy the need supposed to be satisfied AND annihilate other needs being satisfied, e.g.: –Censorship – supposedly PROTECTION – inhibits understanding, participation, leisure creation, identity, freedom –Arms race – supposedly PROTECTION – inhibits subsistence, affection, participation, freedom
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