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SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep091 Comparing social distance and social network approaches to the analysis of social interactions between occupations A.

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Presentation on theme: "SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep091 Comparing social distance and social network approaches to the analysis of social interactions between occupations A."— Presentation transcript:

1 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep091 Comparing social distance and social network approaches to the analysis of social interactions between occupations A description and project proposal Presentation to: Early Career Researchers conference on Social Network Analysis, Dept. Applied Social Science, Univ. Stirling, 18 September Paul Lambert and David GriffithsUniversity of Stirling

2 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep092 1)Social Interaction Distance analysis of occupations 2)Social network analysis of occupations (…may need some help!...) 3)Our current plans and summary

3 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep093 Part 1: CAMSIS, Lays out a methodology for analysing social interaction for the purpose of social stratification research Analyse pairs of occupations linked by a social interaction (marriage; friendship; inter- and intra- generational connections) Use correspondence analysis (SPSS; Stata) or RC-II association models (Stata; lEM) on pairs of occupations Tradition of specificity: makes an empirical calculation within a context (country; time period)

4 4 Derived scores predict frequency of interactions (#cases per cell) The scales describe one or more dimensions of a structure of social interaction… …this turns out to also represent a structure of social stratification… …resulting in scale scores which measure an occupations relative position within the structure of stratification. Husbands Job Units Occ Units Derived scores Wifes Job Units

5 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep095

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8 8 Example of HISCAM Generation of CAMSIS scales for 8 nations in period Belgium, Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, USA

9 Recording occupational titles - HISCO (van Leeuwen et al. 2002) - Bespoke national schemes (e.g. Prandy and Bottero 1998; Miles 1999)

10 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0910 Historical microdata Record linkage studies –Family History Study [Prandy & Bottero 1998] Register databases Censuss –NAPP – 100% census for selected countries, including UK, Canada, US, –IPUMS – US data from 19 th Century

11 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0911 Example: A sample HISCAM (v0.2) scale l5_c1_s1_t1 = 5-digit, Netherlands, all, whole time period CA percent inertia: University teachers99Dim 1=11.8% ; Dim2=8.1% First level teacher68.9Correlation with: Livestock farmer47.4ISEI = 0.81 (no farm=0.78) Farm worker39.2Treiman= 0.70 (no farm=0.78) Garment pattern maker Hand or machine sewer50.6Father-son correlation: Gunsmith Locksmith52.6( 0.31 ISEI; 0.12 Treiman) Precision instrument maker Day Labourer43.1

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16 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0916 Contributions: Social interaction distance and occupations CAMSIS is a Social Interaction Distance analysis –Homophily –The reproduction of social inequality is both exemplified by, and sustained through, social interactions Bottero et al. 2009; Stewart et al Explores the overall structure of stratification and social inequality (probabilistic; prevalence) Provides a potential measure of stratification position (there are plenty others..!)

17 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0917 2) A social network analysis of occupations The same data on pairs of connections between occupations could be analysed as network links Without any controls, most occupations will have at least one connection with most others in a large dataset Griffiths has explored criteria which define whether occupational connections occur at least k times more often than would be expected given their national prevalance

18 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0918 Scotland, 1881, k=2

19 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0919 Scotland, 1881, k=4

20 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0920 USA, 2000, k=2

21 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0921 USA, 2000, k=2, core only

22 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0922 Key linking occupations? Analysing the only three links between these groupings further demonstrates the stratification effect. These are all instances involving occupations with structural connections. One is the link between artists and painting workers. The opportunity for interaction between these occupations is clear. There are 56 other occupations bonded to artists and 52 to painting workers. Only three of these links are to both, all involved in woodworking or painting. The remaining ties are largely to others within their CAMSIS quartile. A clustering of painters, frame- makers and art preservation staff can be identified. Whilst few barriers exist between those responsible for the creation, production and presentation of art, it appears they move in differing circles outside of their working lives. (Griffiths & Lambert, 2009, unpublished application)

23 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0923 Contributions: Social networks and occupations A social network analysis of national level occupational structures could –Explore clusters/boundaries in the stratification system –Identify key linking occupations Analytical challenges include –Gender effects on occupational connections –Age/life-course stage effects –Criteria to adjust for prevalence of connections –Administrative definitions of occupations

24 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep Project proposal We are hoping to work through the following programme of activities ( ): a)Define and disseminate methodologies of SID and SNA applied to occupational data b)Comparison of networks and SID ranking for at least 6 nations (and probably more) –UK, USA, Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland c)Exploration of the implications of educational expansion on occupational distance and networks –Occupations cross-classified by education –Occupational structures at different points in time

25 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0925 Our position in summary Social interaction data involving occupations is easy to get Social interaction patterns and networks probably reveal different but related things Both are of interest to exploring the crucial role of occupations in the contours of the social structure

26 SID & SNA for Occupations, Sep0926 References Bottero, W., Lambert, P. S., Prandy, K., & McTaggart, S. (2009). Occupational Structures: The Stratification Space of Social Interaction. In K. Robson & C. Sanders (Eds.), Quantifying Theory: Pierre Bourdieu (pp ). Amsterdam: Springer Netherlands. Miles, A. (1999). Social Mobility in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century England. London: Palgrave MacMillan. Minnesota Population Center. (2009). Integrated Public Use Microdata Series - International: Version 5.0. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. North Atlantic Population Project and Minnesota Population Center. (2008). NAPP: Complete Count Microdata. NAPP Version 2.0 [computer files]. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Population Center [distributor] [] Prandy, K., & Bottero, W. (1998). The use of marriage data to measure the social order in nineteenth-century Britain. Sociological Research Online, 3(1), U43-U54. Prandy, K., & Bottero, W. (2000). Reproduction within and between generations - The example of nineteenth-century Britain. Historical Methods, 33(1), Stewart, A., Prandy, K., & Blackburn, R. M. (1980). Social Stratification and Occupations. London: MacMillan. van Leeuwen, M. H. D., Maas, I., & Miles, A. (2002). HISCO: Historical International Standard Classification of Occupations. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

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