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Chapter 8 Group Behavior. Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Group Behavior. Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Group Behavior

2 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Group Defined A group is a collection of two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of relationships who share common goals and who perceive themselves as being a group.

3 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Types of Groups Formal Groups Command Groups Task Groups

4 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Types of Groups Formal groups are defined by the organizational structure: Command groups – Groups defined by the organizational chart, i.e., the engineering group. Task groups – Focus is on completing a task, i.e., quality circles.

5 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Types of Groups Informal Groups Interest Groups Friendship Groups

6 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Types of Groups Informal groups are groups that form to respond to common interests or social interaction: Interest groups – People working together for a common interest. Friendship groups – The focus is on people bonding together and sharing common characteristics.

7 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Why do People Join Groups? Security Status Self-esteem Power Goal achievement Cultural identity

8 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Why Do People Join Groups? Security – By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of “standing along.” People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant in threats when they are part of a group. Status – Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members. Self-esteem – Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many, the on-the-job interactions are their primary source of fulfilling their needs for affiliation.

9 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Why Do People Join Groups? Power – There is strength in numbers. What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. Goal achievement – There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task – there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to complete a job. Cultural identity – Many organizations evolve into a organizational culture creating a new environment for teamwork.

10 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening ** Group Development (Stages of development) Forming – caution, confusion, uncertainty. Storming – tension, hostility, and intragroup conflict. Norming – group norms and developing of close relationships. Performing - focusing on the accomplishment of the task. Adjourning – getting closure.

11 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening The Five Stage Model: Team Cooperation and Synergy Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning High Low NegativePositive Neutral Synergy Team Cooperation

12 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Types of Teams (The three most common) ** Problem-solving teams – Quality Circles ( members) Employees within the organization who meet to discuss ways to improve quality, efficiency and the work environment ** Self-managed or self-directed work teams (10-15 members) People who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors ** Cross-functional work teams Team that is made up of director level managers within the organization who have come together to accomplish a task

13 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Three Types of Teams Problem-SolvingSelf-Managed Cross- Functional

14 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Team Cooperation and Synergy A team is a group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. The difference between a work group and a work team is the ability to create positive synergy. ** Synergy is an attribute of work teams which results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.

15 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Other Team Issues... Size Team skills Authority Geography Goals Timing Leadership Reward systems Group decisions Trust

16 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Other Team Issues... Groupshift – groups shifts to become more conservative or more risky due to lack of individual responsibility. ** Groupthink - occurs when group conformity overrides reality. Go along with group’s decision in order to maintain harmony Escalation of commitment - is staying with a course of action beyond where it is reasonable.

17 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Summary Groups will vary in size depending on their function. Successful groups must contain members with technical skills, problem-solving and decision-making skills and strong interpersonal skills. People know and are matched to their jobs and skills. ** Acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by the group's members are called group norms. The majority of norms are informal.

18 Human Behavior in Organizations, 2 nd Edition Rodney Vandeveer and Michael Menefee © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ Modified by Jackie Kroening Summary Teams members must be committed to the team. Members know what has to be done (goals) and achieve this focus. Members are accountable to each other. Members have high mutual trust.


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