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© PMB 2007 Assessment for Learning (AfL) Unit 1: Rationale and Overview.

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1 © PMB 2007 Assessment for Learning (AfL) Unit 1: Rationale and Overview

2 © PMB 2007 Learning Intentions for this Unit You will: be able to answer the question What is AfL?; know the pedagogical context for AfL; know some of the outcomes of research into AfL practice in classrooms and across schools; have an awareness of the key areas of classroom practice associated with AfL; know where to access further information.

3 © PMB 2007 Activity 2 Key Purposes of Assessment

4 © PMB 2007 Assessment for learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go next, and how best to get them there. - Assessment Reform Group Assessment for Learning:

5 © PMB 2007 Assessment of & for Learning Summative Assessment - occurs after the learning - to prove learning - measures learning - done to learners - widens the ability range… - externally referenced - outcome focused Formative Assessment - occurs during the learning - to improve learning - grows learning - done with learners - narrows the ability range - personally referenced - process focused

6 © PMB 2007 Based on the constructivist view, which says: However neatly we may design, package and deliver learning experiences, in the end learning is a process that is instigated and managed by the learner. Its the learner who constructs the learning. How can I help my pupils to become better learners? What is AfL Based On?

7 © PMB 2007 Activity 3 Draw the Titanic Be detailed. Draw it in profile. Depict it in full daylight and afloat.

8 © PMB 2007 Full Marks Exemplar

9 © PMB 2007 AfL helps pupils to: understand the reason and focus for learning; recognise success in learning; identify and work towards a goal; and understand how to make improvements and achieve their goals. Why Use AfL in Your Classroom?

10 © PMB 2007 Theres an over-emphasis on grading and giving marks. To pupils, assessment that compares them with others seems to be more about competition than personal improvement. Feedback from these comparative assessment approaches reduces morale. Evidence – Black and Wiliam

11 © PMB 2007 Performance Range in control groups Range of typical performance enhancements in assessment for learning groups Performance Range in Assessment for Learning groups Source: Black and Wiliam (1998) Average effect size: 25% shift in performance compared to control groups after 2.5 years, and a reduced spread in the performance range. Low High Evidence – Black and Wiliam

12 © PMB 2007 Rewards and rankings encourage pupils to focus on marks rather than their learning needs. Students then avoid risk and difficult tasks. - Carol Dweck Evidence – Carol Dweck

13 © PMB 2007 Learning Intentions Success Criteria Formative Feedback Effective Questioning Peer- and Self-Assessment and Self-Evaluation AfLs Main Elements

14 © PMB 2007 Learning, Teaching & Assessment Cycle Improvement Planning Learning Intentions Input Success Criteria Learning Activity Formative Feedback Peer & Self- Assessment & Evaluation AfL in the Classroom

15 © PMB 2007 AfL is formative assessment; seeks to improve learning rather than prove it; can significantly and measurably improve pupil performance; and requires understanding, careful planning and gradual integration to be meaningful and successful. AfL Summary

16 © PMB 2007 Assessment for Learning can be invaluable as you seek to implement the Revised Curriculum. There is much successful practice in schools already. Its not all new! Its as much a change in culture as a change in practice in classrooms. You cant do it all tomorrow – it takes time! Key Closing Messages

17 © PMB 2007 Further information Publications: Inside the Black Box, Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment (Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam, 1998) Assessment and Learning in the Secondary School (Ted Wragg, 2001) Formative Assessment in the Secondary Classroom (Shirley Clarke, 2005) Formative Assessment in Action: Weaving the Elements Together (Shirley Clarke, 2005) Websites:

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