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Stephen Albone Diagnosing and Remediating Mathematical Problems Using InCAS Software

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2 Defining Maths Difficulties Low Attainment Under Attainment Lack of Progress

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3 Reasons for Maths Difficulties Institutional Motivational Neuropsychological

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4 Institutional Factors Learning Environment Suitability for Atypical Learners

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5 Motivational Factors Status of Mathematics in Society Effect of Low Achievement Perceived Control –Competence & Contingency afraid to make mistakes failure avoidance behaviour strong negative reactions associated with EBD, MLD & SLD

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6 Helping Motivation Well Structured Tasks Achievable Goals Immediate Feedback Cross-age Peer Tutoring

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7 Neuropsychological Factors Magnitude Representation –Internal Number Line –Number Sense –Approximate Number System (ANS) Symbolic Representation –Uses verbal systems to give semantic meaning to numerical quantities Spatial Representaion –Subitising?

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8 Dehaene et al. (2003) Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 20, pp Magnitude Representations Verbal Representations Visual/Spatial Representations

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9 Learning to Count Counting Word Sequence One-to-One Correspondance Cardinal Word Principle Order-Irrelevance Principle Abstractness Principle

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10 Early Arithmetic Calculation Strategies –count all –counting on from first –counting on from higher –recall

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11 The Role of Memory Working Memory Semantic (Long-Term) Memory

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12 Helping Arithmetic Instant feedback Evaluate reasons for incorrect responses Encourage new strategies Encourage answer checking using primitive strategies

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13 Helping Memory Use memory aids Literacy remediation strategies may help

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14 Verbal vs. Abstract Problems

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15 Verbal vs. Abstract Problems Proposed Developmental Sequence: 1.verbal single-reference 2.symbolic single reference 3.symbolic double-reference 4.verbal double-reference

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16 DD or MLD? Developmental Dyscalculia –Specific Impairment of Cognitive Function –Defective Number Module Hypothesis –Core Deficit Hypothesis Mathematical Learning Difficulties –Comorbidity with Other SENs

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17 Dehaene et al. (2003) Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 20, pp Intraparietal Sulchus (IPS) Left Angular Gyrus (AG) PSPL

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18 Proposed DD/MLD Framework Rubinsten & Henik (2009) TICS, vol. 13, pp

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Stephen Albone Diagnosing and Remediating Mathematical Problems InCAS Feedback

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Stephen Albone 20 Achievement Scores Table

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Stephen Albone 21 Developed Ability Scores Table

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Stephen Albone 22 General Maths Modules Scores Table

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Stephen Albone 51 CEM: Mountjoy Research Centre Durham University Stockton Road Durham, UK DH1 3UZ Tel: +44 (0)

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