Presentation on theme: "Project Management in Team Software Projects The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the goals of the project charter while adhering."— Presentation transcript:
Project Management in Team Software Projects The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the goals of the project charter while adhering to the four classic project constraints – scope, time, cost, quality
Introduction Leeds Source-IT Version Control for Software Development Group Project Management
Leeds Source-IT Leeds Source-IT is a consultancy service staffed by high calibre Computing student programmers and managed by experienced staff. We undertake self contained projects on a fixed price basis. All projects are tightly specified up front and undertaken using Agile Programming techniques, monitored on-line with dedicated project management software and client sign off stages
Version Control for Software Development Leeds Source-IT Version Control for Software Development Group Project Management
Retrieving from SVN/GIT Initial check out of an existing project. The following command will check out a working copy of an existing project: svn checkout git clone SVN repository GIT repository Developer ADeveloper B Developer ADeveloper B checkoutclone
Informing the Version Control Version control systems must be notified of changes to the directory structure including notifications of additions, deletions, copies and moves: svn add git add svn rm git rm svn mv git mv
Pushing Changes To share changes made to the local copy with other developers, the changes must be uploaded to the central repository: svn commit [-m Explanation of changes] git commit [-a Explanation of changes] Updating the local copy with the latest changes in the repository. To update a local copy: svn update git pull
Pushing Changes and Updates SVN repository GIT repository Developer ADeveloper B Developer ADeveloper B commitpush update pull commit
SVN: Flag Description Reference: c/files/documents/15/177/svn-ref.ps The file or directory has been deletedD The file or directory has been replaced (an existing file was deleted, then a new file of the same name was created) R The file has been changed locally and remotely, but the changes did not conflict and have been automatically merged by subversion G The file conflicts with changes from the serverC The file or directory has been addedA The file has been updated with changes from the serverU DescriptionFlag
Managing Conflicting Changes Version control systems will merge multiple changes to the project so that subsequent checkout commands will retrieve the latest version of each file in the repository. What happens if a file has been modified by multiple users since the last checkout/commit cycle? Version control systems cannot know which version is correct informs the user there is a conflict prevent further changes until this conflict is resolved Conflict needs to be resolved manually Usually this will require a discussion between the authors of the changes. The file can then be edited to the correct state.
Managing Conflict II Once a conflict has been resolved, Subversion must be informed of this resolution before the working copy is allowed to be committed svn resolved filename Marks the conflict on filename as resolved. The file can now be committed to the repository. Perform these steps again, so your partner can resolve a conflict. See man git-merge-file for resolving changes to the same file
Managing Conflict Task In groups discuss the following questions: 1. Who decides which changes are kept and which is deleted? 2. What impact do you see during code development? 3. What mechanisms would you put in place to ensure the correct decisions are made? 4. What are the different scenarios causing conflict (consider different orders of checkout, update, resolve and commit) SVN File A User 3 File A User 1 File A User 2
Group Project Management Leeds Source-IT Version Control for Software Development Group Project Management
Leeds Source-IT Group Project Management What is Project Management? Sequence of tasks Consumes resources Achieves an objective Results in something new Golden Rules of Project Success Develop a comprehensive, realistic plan and keep it up-to-date Gain consensus on project outcomes Make reasonable resource requirements Build the best team you can and take care of them Keep the stakeholders informed Be willing to change or to try new things The Source-IT infrastructure provides all the necessary tools available to achieve these points if used correctly. Project Members need to keep the project information current
Project Stages Contract Set-up Phase (LSIT managers) liaise with clients to understand their requirements and agree the Specification. Price for the work will be derived from this, based on the agreed Skills List and estimated times. Hourly rates or a task based rate will be agreed and formalised within the Client Contract. We will use standard templates provided by University of Leeds Consultancy Ltd (ULCL).
Software Requirements Specification (SRS) Well-designed, well-written SRS accomplishes four major goals: 1. It provides feedback to the customer. An SRS is the customers assurance that the development organization understands the issues or problems to be solved and the software behaviour necessary to address those problems. SRS should be written in natural language, in an unambiguous manner that may also include charts, tables, data flow diagrams, decision tables, etc. 2. It decomposes the problem into component parts. The simple act of writing down software requirements in a well-designed format organizes information, places borders around the problem, solidifies ideas, and helps break down the problem into its component parts in an orderly fashion. 3. It serves as an input to the design specification. SRS serves as the parent document to subsequent documents, such as the software design specification and statement of work. SRS must contain sufficient detail in the functional system requirements so that a design solution can be devised. 4. It serves as a product validation check. SRS also serves as the parent document for testing and validation strategies that will be applied to the requirements for verification.
SRS – IEEE Standard Adaptation and Extension of the Standard 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Document conventions 1.3 Intended audience 1.4 Additional information 1.5 Contact information/SRS team members 1.6 References 2. Overall Description 2.1 Product perspective 2.2 Product functions 2.3 User classes and characteristics 2.4 Operating environment 2.5 User environment 2.6 Design/implementation constraints 2.7 Assumptions and dependencies 3. External Interface Requirements 3.1 User interfaces 3.2 Hardware interfaces 3.3 Software interfaces 3.4 Communication protocols and interfaces 4. System Features 4.1 System feature A Description and priority Action/result Functional requirements 4.2 System feature B 5. Other Nonfunctional Requirements 5.1 Performance requirements 5.2 Safety requirements 5.3 Security requirements 5.4 Software quality attributes 5.5 Project documentation 5.6 User documentation 6. Other Requirements Appendix A: Terminology/Glossary/Definitions list Appendix B: To be determined
Specification Task Sort yourself into groups and complete the following specifications and requirements. Specifications: Create a picture with geometrical shapes of various colours. The picture will have a red star, a blue circle and a green triangle not overlapping with two diagonal black lines crossing at the centre. Requirements: 1. Diagonal lines 1.1 lines are black and straight 1.2 lines are drawn to intersect in the centre of the page 1.3 First line is from the top left (below the corner) to bottom right (above the corner) 1.4 Second line is from top right corner to bottom left corner 2. Red star 2.1 Start is red and colour filled 2.2 Star is a six pointed star 2.3 Star is positioned on the upper right section of the page 2.4 Star is small in size 3. Green triangle 3.1 Triangle is green bordered with no fill 3.2 Triangle is positioned on the top left below the line from top left to bottom right 3.3 Triangle is large in size 4. Blue circle 4.1 Circle is blue with no fill 4.2 Circle is position at the bottom of the page 4.3 Circle is not touching the black lines 4.4 Circle is medium in size Draw the picture to the specification and requirements.
Specification Task II Discuss any differences in the image and the specification. How does it differ? What specifications needed to be added to make it an exact replica. Question: What impact would differences here have on the development of software?
Issues: Features, Documents and Bugs Using the Source-IT infrastructure and online software for project management (Redmine). Issues are used to define features, documents and bugs needed for development and new versioning. Issues == Requirements == Features
Identifying and Linking Requirements to Source Requirements (or issues in Source-IT) for development require the following fields: Requirement Number Unique Identificaiton Requirement Type Type as defined by the project and Source-IT Specification Numbers To map the requirement to the client specification Description One sentence statement of the requirement Originator Who created the requirement Fit Criterion The measurement of the requirement to test is the solution matches the requirement Priority Rating of the customer value Supporting Material Pointers to documents that explain this document (probably the specification document) History Creation, changes, deletions etc. In the Source-IT infrastructure, the requirements are added as Issues labeled Features within the Software Application. A unique ID is already allocated. Fields within the application. Low Normal High Urgent Immediate
Redmine and Requirements During the team kick off meeting for a project. Clients, Source-IT management and consultants will discuss and set the specification requirements to create a Source-IT requirements specification document (technical document) to be signed off by the client and management. Each specification will have a unique id and allocated to a milestone agreed by the kick-off team and setup as an issue/feature within the Source-IT infrastructure. The above table specifies the process to create, implement and sign off a specification.
Penny Queue Exercise: Waterfall and Agile This simple simulation exercise helps people to understand the efficiency that can come from moving away from a waterfall or large batch process. The exercise can be done with 20 pennies, 5 people and a clock with a second hand. The exercise simulates processing work in the form of flipping pennies from heads to tails and back. Four people in the Team sit at a table or other hard surface in a line beside each other. The surface must allow for easily sliding the pennies. The fifth person, the Manager, starts the process and times it.
Penny Queue Exercise: Waterfall and Agile II First Pass - Waterfall Large Batch 1. The Manager gives all the pennies to the first person in the Team and notes the start time. The pennies should be in a big jumble. 2. The first Team member chooses a side (heads or tails) and flips all the pennies onto that side. 3. The person with the pennies passes the whole pile of pennies to the next person. That person then flips all the pennies to the other side. 4. Repeat step three until the last person on the Team has flipped them. 5. The manager notes how long this took.
Penny Queue Exercise: Waterfall and Agile III Second Pass - Waterfall Small Batch 1. The Manager gives all the pennies to the first person in the Team and notes the start time. The pennies should be in a big jumble. 2. The first Team member chooses a side (heads or tails) and flips all the pennies onto that side. As each penny is flipped, the Team member passes it along to the next person. 3. Each person flips their pennies as quickly as possible and immediately passes them on to next person. 4. Do this until they are all flipped. 5. The manager notes how long it took for the first penny to go through all four Team members, and how long it took for all of them to finish.
Penny Queue Exercise: Waterfall and Agile IV Third Pass - Parallel Small Batch 1. All the pennies are in a random jumble in the middle of the table. 2. One Team member calls heads or tails and the manager notes the start time. 3. Each person grabs a penny at a time from the pile. 4. All working at the same time as quickly as possible, each person flips the pennies first so they are all the same as the original call if needed, and then three more times 5. As each penny is finished 3 or 4 flips (as appropriate) it is pushed into a separate done pile in the middle of the table. 6. The Manager records the time for the first penny to be put into the done pile and for all of them to be completed.
Milestones Milestones are arranged by Leeds Source-IT managers, you (the project team) and the clients. Develop An Overall Model - goal is to identify and understand the fundamentals of the domain that your system is addressing Build Features List, grouping them into related sets and Subject areas. These first two steps map to the initial envisioning effort of AMDD. Plan By Feature, the end result being a development, the identification of class owners (more on this in a minute), and the identification of feature set owners. Design By Feature, design feature Build By Feature, complete client values function
Milestones II The majority of the effort on an FDD project, roughly 75%, is comprised of the fourth and fifth steps Design By Feature and Build By Feature. These two activities are exactly what youd expect, they include tasks such as detailed modeling, programming, testing, and packaging of the system. FDD also defines a collection of supporting roles, including: Domain Manager; Release Manager; Language Guru; Build Engineer; Toolsmith; System Administrator; Tester; Deployer; Technical Writer
Testing Software testing is an empirical investigation conducted to provide information
Finding Faults Early It is commonly believed that the earlier a defect is found the cheaper it is to fix it.
Testing Methods Specification Based Testing aims to test the functionality according to the requirements. (verify that for a given input, the output value or behaviour) Black Box Testing treats the software as a black-box without any knowledge of internal implementation. methods include: equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, all-pairs testing, fuzz testing, model-based testing, traceability matrix, exploratory testing, specification based testing, etc. White Box Testing when the tester has access to the internal data structures and algorithms (and the code that implement these) Grey Box Testing involves having access to internal data structures and algorithms for designing test cases, but testing at the user, or black-box level.
Non Functional Software Testing Special methods exist to test non-functional aspects of software. Performance testing checks to see if the software can handle large quantities of data or users. Generally referred to as software scalability. Usability testing is needed to check if the user interface is easy to use and understand. Security testing is essential for software which processes confidential data and to prevent system intrusion by hackers. Internationalization and localization is needed to test these aspects of software, for which a pseudolocalization method can be used.
Source-IT Project Feature Process for a Consultant
Source-IT Project Milestone Process for a Consultant
Source-IT Project Finalisation Once the project is internally signed off, it will be presented to the Client who will externally sign off. Note that this may be a staged process, depending on the contract, as Clients may wish to sign off each part of the work (see milestones). Once the Client has fully approved the work, they will be asked to sign a formal written Acceptance Form and the project will be terminated. Financial payments and invoicing will be carried out by ULCL (including debt chasing if necessary).
Risk Assessment for Student Consultants 1. Students failing to complete work on time (for instance due to abilities, illness) Careful recruitment and selection Clear guidance and briefing of terms of work Support in the case of lack of skills Students required to file work at least weekly, so that at most one weeks work (ie. 5 hours) will be lost Students paid only on satisfactory completion of work 2. Students unable to do work and withdrawing from all or part of a project As (1). Work allocated to another student asap. Client advised and extra time requested if necessary. 3. Students making errors in work Test plan to be part of each project Students check each others work Weekly monitoring
Risk Assessment for Student Consultants II 4. Clients dissatisfied Agree very tight specification, to form part of a signed agreement Clients involved in sign off at each stage of process 5. Clients refusing to pay Refer to ULCL for standard debt chasing procedures 6. Clients taking us to court Refer to ULCL 7. Clients not providing sufficient support to process (eg. not attending project management meetings or providing details for specification) Support to project management procedures part of contract with client They need to agree either decisions made without them, or project delay.
Risk Assessment for Student Consultants III 8. Hardware failures (particularly on student computers) Appropriate guidance on backing up Encourage students to use SoC facilities including SVN Provide 1-2 LSIT machines in dedicated LSIT office 9. Software problems - delays due to need to install libraries or plug-ins for specific projects Support asked to give priority to LSIT when there are deadlines Investigate software requirements as part of specification and start up process 10 Not enough work coming in Students only paid if work available. Some costs of pilot phase could be covered by start up funding 11. Too much work coming in Manage client expectations Look for appropriate partners who we could pass work to in busy times Consider running a modified scheme based on vacation working
Homework Home work task Familiarise yourself with Redmine when put on a project Other sandbox management applications for Trac; Bugzilla etc. (search the web) PDP: Please think what you wish to obtain from Source-IT (other than money) Select the categories and during your time on Source-IT add examples on work you are doing. If you wish to add any categories to the PDP, please contact a member of management
Further Information Literature Baars, Wouter (2006). Project Management Handbook (open source), version 1.1, Edita-KNAW. External Links: The Project Management Institute IPMA - The International Project Management Association The Australian Institute of Project Management SVN, subversion.tigris.org/files/documents/15/177/svn-ref.ps Search the Web Prince 2; Agile; SVN; Eclipse, etc...