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1GR2-00 GR2 Advanced Computer Graphics AGR Lecture 7 Polygon Shading Techniques

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2GR2-00 Reflection Models n We have seen how the reflected intensity at a point may be calculated – either by the Phong model or the physically based Cook and Torrance model n A reminder of the Phong reflection model...

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3GR2-00 Phong Reflection Model light source N L R V eye surface I( ) = K a ( )I a ( ) + ( K d ( )( L. N ) + K s ( R. V ) n ) I*( ) / dist In practice, we evaluate I RED, I GREEN, I BLUE for red, green, blue intensities: I RED = K a RED I a RED + ( K d RED ( L. N ) + K s ( R. V ) n ) I* RED /dist Note: R.V calculation replaced by H.N for speed - H = (L+V)/2 dist = distance attenuation factor

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4GR2-00 Phong Reflection Model n Remember calculation depends on: – surface normal at a point – light source intensity and position – material properties – viewer position n L.N and H.N constant if L, V taken to be far away

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5GR2-00 Viewing Polygons n We have also seen how a 3D polygon can be projected to screen space via a sequence of transformations This lecture looks at how we shade the polygon, using our reflection model

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6GR2-00 Constant (or Flat) Shading n Calculate normal (how?) n Assume L.N and R.V constant (light & viewer at infinity) n Calculate I RED, I GREEN, I BLUE using Phong reflection model n Use scan line conversion to fill polygon N light viewer

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7GR2-00 2D Graphics - Revision! n Scan line methods used to fill 2D polygons with a constant colour – find ymin, ymax of vertices – from ymin to ymax do: – find intersection with polygon edges – fill in pixels between intersections using specified colour

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8GR2-00 Polygonal Models n Recall that we use polygonal models to approximate curved surfaces Constant shading will emphasise this approximation because each facet will be constant shaded, with sudden change from facet to facet

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9GR2-00 Flat Shading

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10GR2-00 Gouraud Shading n Gouraud shading attempts to smooth out the shading across the polygon facets n Begin by calculating the normal at each vertex N

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11GR2-00 Gouraud Shading averaging n A feasible way to do this is by averaging the normals from surrounding facets intensities n Then apply the reflection model to calculate intensities at each vertex N

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12GR2-00 Gouraud Shading linear interpolation n We use linear interpolation to calculate intensity at edge intersection P I P RED = (1- I P1 RED + I P2 RED where P divides P1P2 in the ratio n Similarly for Q P4 P2 P1 P3 P Q

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13GR2-00 Gouraud Shading n Then we do further linear interpolation to calculate colour of pixels on scanline PQ P2 P1 P3 P Q

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14GR2-00 Gouraud Shading

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15GR2-00 Gouraud Shading Limitations - Specular Highlights n Gouraud shading gives intensities within a polygon which are a weighted average of the intensities at vertices – a specular highlight at a vertex tends to be smoothed out over a larger area than it should cover – a specular highlight in the middle of a polygon will never be shown

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16GR2-00 Gouraud Shading Limitations - Mach Bands n The rate of change of pixel intensity is even across any polygon, but changes as boundaries are crossed Mach banding n This discontinuity is accentuated by the human visual system, so that we see either light or dark lines at the polygon edges - known as Mach banding

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17GR2-00 Phong Shading n Phong shading has a similar first step, in that vertex normals are calculated - typically as average of normals of surrounding faces N

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18GR2-00 Phong Shading n However rather than calculate intensity at vertices and then interpolate intensities as we do in Gouraud shading... n In Phong shading we interpolate normals at each pixel... P4 P2 P1 P3 P Q N2 N1 N

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19GR2-00 Phong Shading n... and apply the reflection model at each pixel to calculate the intensity - I RED, I GREEN, I BLUE P4 P2 P1 P3 P Q N2 N1 N

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20GR2-00 Phong Shading

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21GR2-00 Phong versus Gouraud Shading n A major advantage of Phong shading over Gouraud is that specular highlights tend to be much more accurate – vertex highlight is much sharper – a highlight can occur within a polygon n Also Mach banding greatly reduced n The cost is a substantial increase in processing time because reflection model applied per pixel n But there are limitations to both Gouraud and Phong

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22GR2-00 Gouraud versus Phong

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23GR2-00 Interpolated Shading Limitations - Perspective Effects n Anomalies occur because interpolation is carried out in screen space, after the perspective transformation n Suppose P2 much more distant than P1. P is midway in screen space so gets 50 : 50 intensity (Gouraud) or normal (Phong) n... but in world coordinates it is much nearer P1 than P2 P4 P2 P1 P3 P Q

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24GR2-00 Interpolated Shading Limitations - Averaging Normals n Averaging the normals of adjacent faces usually works reasonably well n But beware corrugated surfaces where the averaging unduly smooths out the surface

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25GR2-00 Wall Lights

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26GR2-00 Wall Lights with Fewer Polygons

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27GR2-00 Final Note on Normals n If a sharp polygon boundary is required, we calculate two vertex normals for each side of the joint N LEFT N RIGHT

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28GR2-00 Further Study n There are excellent illustrations of Gouraud and Phong shading at a number of Web sites n Please go to: and follow the link to Resources

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29GR2-00 Acknowledgements n Thanks again to Alan Watt for the images n The following sequence is the famous Shutterbug from Foley et al

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30GR2-00 Simple Shading - Without Taking Account of Normals

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31GR2-00 Constant or Flat Shading - Each Polygon has Constant Shade

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32GR2-00 Gouraud Shading

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33GR2-00 Phong Shading

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34GR2-00 Phong Shading with Curved Surfaces

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35GR2-00 Better Illumination Model

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