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Corpus Linguistics for Understanding the Quran Eric Atwell, Kais Dukes, Nora Abbas, Abdul-Baquee Muhammad I-AIBS Institute for Artificial Intelligence.

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Presentation on theme: "Corpus Linguistics for Understanding the Quran Eric Atwell, Kais Dukes, Nora Abbas, Abdul-Baquee Muhammad I-AIBS Institute for Artificial Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Corpus Linguistics for Understanding the Quran Eric Atwell, Kais Dukes, Nora Abbas, Abdul-Baquee Muhammad I-AIBS Institute for Artificial Intelligence and Biological Systems School of Computing University of Leeds

2 (1) Quranic Studies (3) Computational Linguistics (2) Traditional Arabic Linguistics The Challenge: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding the Quran

3 (1) What is the Quran? Holy BookProphetText Dated Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls)Abraham? The Tawrat (Torah)Moses1500 BCE? The Zabur (Psalms)David1000 BCE? The Injil (Gospel)Jesus1 CE The QuranMuhammad (PBUH) CE The last in a series of 5 religious texts

4 (1) What is the Quran? - Classical Arabic - Islamic Law (legal logic) - Divine guidance & direction - Scientific & philosophical knowledge - Has inspired many scientific achievements, e.g. Algebra and linguistics The central religious text of Islam

5 (2) Traditional Arabic Linguistics - Orthography (diacritics and vowelization) - Etymology (Semitic roots) - Morphology (derivation and inflection) - Syntax (origins of dependency grammar) - Discourse Analysis & Rhetoric - Semantics & Pragmatics Originated in Arabs studying the language of the Quran (detailed analysis for at least 1000 years):

6 (3) Computational Linguistics Current use of computing to analyze the Quran is mostly… - Keyword search (useful) - Frequency analysis (numerology?) Where are we now?

7 (3) Computational Linguistics Example question-answering dialog system: Question How long should I breastfeed my child for? Answer Mothers should suckle their offspring for two years, if the father wishes to complete the term (The Holy Quran, Verse 2:233). - How far can we go? - Is an artificial intelligence system realistic?

8 An AI approach to understanding the Quran Central Hypothesis Augmenting the text of the Quran with rich annotation will lead to a more accurate AI system. - Prepare the data by annotating the Quran. - Use the data to build an AI system for concept search and question-answering.

9 Annotating the Quran Challenges Orthography - Complex script verified in Unicode? Morphology - Arabic is highly inflected and this is challenging to model by computer Syntax - Phrase structure or dependency grammar? Semantics – lexical semantics, ontology, logic, lexical frames?

10 Annotating the Quran Solutions - Recent computational advances have made possible annotating the Quran to very high accuracy - Community effort using volunteers - Leverage existing resources from Traditional Arabic Grammar - Automatic annotation followed by manual verification

11 Recent Advances: Orthography Google Search for verse (68:38) on Jan 21, 2008 shows many typos Does an accurate digital copy of the Quran exist? Encoding Issues - Missing diacritics - Simplified script (not Uthmani) - Windows code page 1256, not Unicode

12 Recent Advances: Orthography Tanzil Project (http://tanzil.info)http://tanzil.info - Stable version released May Uses Unicode XML encoding, including the special characters designed for the complex Arabic script of the Quran - Manually verified to 100% accuracy by a group of experts who have memorized the entire text of the Quran

13 Recent Advances: Orthography Java Quran API (http://jqurantree.org)http://jqurantree.org March Java classes for querying the Tanzil XML of the Quran - First step towards software package for analyzing the Quran

14 Recent Advances: Morphology - Buckwalter Arabic Morphological Analyzer (2002) - Morphological Analysis of the Quran at the University of Haifa, Israel (2004) - Lexeme & feature based morphological representation of Arabic (Nizar Habash, 2006)

15 The Haifa Corpus (2004) Multiple analysis for each word (up to 5) rbb+fa&l+Noun+Triptotic+Masc+Sg+Pron+Dependent +1P+Sg rbb+fa&l+Noun+Triptotic+Masc+Sg+Gen Not a manually verified corpus Authors reports an F-measure of 86% Non-standard annotation scheme not familiar to traditional Arabic linguists (e.g. extracting a list of all verbs in the corpus is non-trivial) Arabic text is only encoded phonetically instead of using the original Arabic. Searching for the possible morphological analyses for a specific word is not easy

16 The Quranic Arabic Corpus - Manually verified (99% accuracy) - Poplar website with very positive feedback - million(s) of visitors 1. Initial tagging using Buckwalter Analyzer 2. Paid annotator working for 3 months 3. Community of volunteers verifying against existing books of Traditional Arabic Grammar which analyse the Quran Shows Arabic and English morphological analysis side-by-side, with phonetic transcription, search and translation.

17 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Kais Dukes Arabic Language Computing Applied to the Quran – PhD (part-time) Kais Dukes an open-source online focus for linguistic research on Classical Arabic: morphology - each word shows colour-coded morphological analysis syntax - each verse shows dependecy parse following Arabic tradition semantics - entitites and concepts are linked to an ontology translation - word-for-word English translations to aid understanding Machine Learning - annotations provide training data for a parser Impact on society - dozens of researchers collaborated on the analysis and over a million visitors have used the website this year.

18 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Part-of-speech Tagging Part-of-speech TagNameArabic Name NNoun اسم PNProper noun اسماء علم PRONPersonal pronoun ضمير DEMDemonstrative pronoun اسم اشارة RELRelative pronoun اسم موصول ADJAdjective صفة VVerb فعل PPreposition حرف جر PARTParticle حرف INTGInterrogative particle حرف استفهام VOCVocative particle حرف نداء NEGNegative particle حرف نفي FUTFuture particle حرف استقبال CONJConjunction حرف عطف NUMNumber رقم TTime adverb ظرف زمان LOCLocation adverb ظرف مكان EMPHEmphatic lām prefix لام التوكيد PRPPurpose lām prefix لام التعليل IMPVImperative lām prefix لام الامر INLQuranic initials حروف مقطعة -Part-of-speech tags adapted from Traditional Arabic Grammar, and mapped to English equivalents (not the other way around) - These tags apply to words in the Quran, as well as to individual morphological segments in the text

19 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Verified Uthmani Script - Unicode Uthmani Script - Sourced from the verified Tanzil project

20 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Phonetics (faja'alnāhumu) - Phonetic transcription generated algorithmically - Guided by Arabic vowelized diacritics

21 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Interlinear translation - Word-for-word translation from accepted sources - Interlinear translation scheme

22 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Location Reference (21:70:4) - Common standard for verses (Chapter:Verse) - Extended in the QAC corpus to include word numbers and segment numbers, e.g. (21:70:4:2)

23 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Morphological Segmentation - Division of a single word into multiple segments - Part-of-speech tag assigned to each segment - Traditional Arabic Grammar rules used for division

24 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Morphological segment features

25 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Arabic Grammar Summary

26 The Quranic Arabic Treebank Syntactic Annotation - Dependency Grammar based onإعراب (i'rāb) - Syntactico-semantic roles for each word

27 The Quranic Arabic Treebank Whats new about this research? - First Treebank of Classical Arabic - Free Treebank of the Quran - Well-defined formal representation of Traditional Arabic Grammar using hybrid constituency/dependency graphs

28 Automatic Annotation Classical Arabic Dependency Parser - - Joakim Nivre (2009) dependency parsing using a shift/reduce queue/stack architecture with machine learning - Following similar architecture, but with hand written rules, custom parser has an F-measure of 77.2%

29 Quran Search for a Concept Tool Nora Abbas developed the first Quran "search for a concept" tool and website, Qurany;Qurany Noorhan AbbasNoorhan Abbas. Qurany: A Tool to Search for Concepts in the Quran (PDF). MSc by Research Thesis, School of Computing, Leeds University, 2009Qurany: A Tool to Search for Concepts in the QuranPDF

30 Quran Search for a Concept Tools What the available Quran tools on the net provide? What the available Quran tools on the net provide? What is the main problem with these tools? What is the main problem with these tools? What about the Recall value of their results? What is the main reason for these poor results? What is the main reason for these poor results? The SearchTruth tool 48% The SearchTruth tool 48% Search Truth Truth The Holy Quran Viewer tool 34% The Holy Quran Viewer tool 34% Holy Quran Viewer Quran Viewer The University of Southern California tool 49% The University of Southern California tool 49% MSA-USC Quran Database Quran Database

31 What is a CONCEPT? NOT just a keyword index term in a textbook? Quran Search for a Concept Tool

32 General/Abstract Concepts: – Womens financial status – Main pillars of Islam – Characteristics of Paradise Concrete Concepts: – Names of places (Makkah, Mecca, Meccah) – Names of prophets, angels,…etc. (Musa, Moses) – Names of Holy Books (The Book (Bible), Bible, New Testament) Quran Search for a Concept Tool

33 What does my tool look like?

34 Quran Search for a Concept Tool Handling the Concrete Concepts – Eight Parallel English Translations – Search for one English word or a group of words in one search request – Search for one Arabic word or a group of words in one search request – Search for a mixed list of Arabic and English words in one search request – Offers a list of synonyms for the English words

35 Quran Search for a Concept Tool General/Abstract Concepts – It is imported from Mushaf Al Tajweed index of topics published by Dar Al-Maarifa in Syria. – The tool has 15 main concepts. – The tool covers all the concepts in both languages Arabic and English. – The total number of concepts covered is – For example, to represent: Womens financial status Main pillars of Islam Characteristics of Paradise

36 Knowledge representation and text mining of the Qur'an Abdul-Baquee Muhammad

37 Qur'anic Applications Text Mining The Quran Verse similarityVerse similarity: Allows you to see all verses that share a certain percent of characters with your input verse. Quranic Chapter RelativesQuranic Chapter Relatives allows you to see the strongest relatives of a given Quran Chapter. Word CloudWord Cloud: See word clouds of a sura or group of suras of the Qur'anic. Qur'an ConcordanceQur'an Concordance: Concordance over lemma. Part-of-Speech Display of SuraPart-of-Speech Display of Sura: View a sura of the Qur'an with color-coded Part of speech tags. Quranic word co-occurenceQuranic word co-occurence: Allows you to enter a quranic terms to finds its most frequent neighbors. N-gram SearchN-gram Search: Search upto 5-gram phrases of the Quran with a frequency of 5 or more. Pronoun ReferencesPronoun References: Given a verse, see all pronoun references within this verse. List of ConceptsList of Concepts: See a list of concepts arising from Pronoun referents in the Quran.

38 AI for understanding the Quran Kais Dukes developed the first online annotated linguistic resource which shows the Arabic "irab" morphology and grammar for each word and verse in the Holy Quran, the Quranic Arabic Corpus including word-by-word morphology and English gloss, and Ontology of Quranic concepts; Quranic Arabic Corpusword-by-word morphology and English glossOntology of Quranic concepts Nora Abbas developed the first Quran "search for a concept" tool and website, Qurany;Qurany Abdul-Baquee Sharaf developed tools and resources for text mining the Quran including verse similarity, lemma concordance and collocation, and text mining the Hadeethtext mining the Quran verse similaritylemma concordancecollocationtext mining the Hadeeth


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