Ideological Differences Different philosophies/ideologies: –Democratic capitalism –Marxist communism
U.S. vs. Soviets Private control Voting by the people Competing political parties State controlled all economic activity Totalitarian gov’t No opposing parties
Long History of Distrust The U.S. had intervened in the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks No Soviet representative participated in the Treaty of Versailles The U.S. did not establish diplomatic relations until 1933 The Soviets were not invited to join the League of Nations until 1934
Distrust Con’t The Western Allies had appeased the growing power of Hitler partly in the hope that he would destroy the Soviet state for them The U.S. and Britain believed that Stalin was a bigger threat than Hitler. Delays in opening a second front after Nazi invasion of USSR angered the Soviets.
Yalta Conference – Feb. 1945 Churchill, Roosevelt (gravely ill), and Stalin Germany Agreed to spilt Germany into four different pieces/zones The American, British and French zones became one West Germany and the Soviet zone became East Germany Poland Stalin knew that Poland was a good place to invade Russia He did not want Poland’s old government to resume power Stalin said they had to be sympathetic to Soviet security needs
United Nations April 25, 1945 representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco to establish UN. Charter signed on June 26, 1945.
Potsdam – July 1945 Big Three: U.S., Great Britain, and the Soviet Union met at Potsdam near Berlin in July ’45. At Potsdam, Stalin agreed to allow vote by secret ballot with multiparty system in Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe. Stalin did not keep his promise.
Why was the fight to contain communism so important?
Soviet Post-War Estimated 20 million deaths, half of whom were civilians. Communist governments established in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland. Became known as satellite nations.
New World Order ( outlined by Roosevelt in Four Freedoms Speech ) Create a world of nations with self- determination. Grow economically. Ensure stability in Europe. Reunite Germany, to be more productive.
Containment – The Long Telegram Feb. ’46, George F. Kennan, American diplomat in Moscow proposed containment policy. Prevent any extension of communist rule. Dominate U.S. Foreign Policy until 1989 and fall of U.S.S.R.
Truman Doctrine – March 1947 “it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” Policy of Containment Official beginning of Cold War
Greece and Turkey Between 1947 and 1950, U.S. sent $400 million in economic and military aid to prevent communist takeover.
What was the Cold War all about? To the U.S. and the Western Europe… To the U.S.S.R…
Cold War Conflict between the U.S. and Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield. Dominated global affairs from ’45 until breakup of Soviet Union in ’91. Black & White World
Marshall Plan In June ’47, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed U.S. provide aid to all European nations that needed it. Why would the U.S. partake in this measure? 16 countries would receive $13 billion in aid over next four years.
“Iron Curtain” Taken from a 1946 speech given by Winston Churchill in the U.S., metaphor representing the stark division of Europe between the East and West.
Division of Germany After WWII, Germany divided into four zones occupied by U.S., Great Britain, and France in the West and Soviet Union in the East. ’48, U.S., Britain and France combined their three zones into one nation – West Germany. Soviet, communist zone – East Germany
Events In June ’48, Stalin closed all highway and rail routes into West Berlin, no food or fuel could reach that part of the city. 2.1 million residents had no food. Britain, France & U.S. begin 24/7 airlift to resupply city.
Blockade Lifted For 327 days, planes took off and landed every few minutes. 277,000 flights, 2.3 million tons of supplies. May 1949, Soviet Union lifted blockade.
Western Germany Formed May ’49, western part of Germany officially became a new nation: Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany, including West Berlin) Soviet Union created German Democratic Republic (East Germany, including East Berlin).
NATO formed Ten Western European nations, including Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal joined U.S. and Canada on April 4, 1949. Defensive military alliance called North Atlantic Treaty Organization.