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Jan 13 2004 C Damerell LC technologies LBL 1 Linear Collider vertex detector technology options Chris Damerell The transition from microstrips to pixels,

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Presentation on theme: "Jan 13 2004 C Damerell LC technologies LBL 1 Linear Collider vertex detector technology options Chris Damerell The transition from microstrips to pixels,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 1 Linear Collider vertex detector technology options Chris Damerell The transition from microstrips to pixels, for vertex detectors Detector requirements for the LC Candidate detector architectures CCDs Monolithic APS (including FAPS) DEPFET Hybrid APS SOI-inspired RF pickup suppression – correlated double sampling LCFI Collaboration R&D – selected items The route to convergence on LC vertex detector(s) Synergy with other science

2 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 2 Since late70s, successful vertex detectors (for heavy flavour tagging) were mainly based on silicon microstrips Interesting technology shift is under way. Within 5 years, will mostly be based on silicon pixels Why is this? highest performance b and charm reconstruction in dense track environments has come from two pixel-based detectors, NA32 in 80s, SLD in 90s extreme radiation environments in the inferno close to IP at future hadron colliders high backgrounds, and high track density in core of jets at future e + e - colliders These disparate requirements at hadron and e + e - colliders have very different solutions (both of them pixel-based), and are supported by contrasting R&D programmes This transition to pixels implies synergies with other areas of science, where images taken with IR, visible, UV, X-rays benefit from the technologies being developed for HEP vertex detectors, and vice versa

3 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 3 Of course, it will definitely be silicon pixels at the LC, or will it?

4 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 4 Detector requirements 5 layers, inner layer at radius mm 3-hit coverage to cos = 0.96 thin layers (<0.1% X 0 ) for minimal multiple scattering and conversions

5 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 5 silicon pixels of size ~ 20 m square for low cluster-merging in jets support structure with micron precision/stability (specially important for oblique tracks near ladder ends) on-detector signal processing, so almost no external connections power dissipation measured in few tens of watts, so gas cooling is sufficient (this is vital for low material budget) adequate radiation hardness (tens of krads from pair bgd, plus few times 10 9 neutrons/cm 2 /yr) readout time ~ ms for JLC/NLC (between bunch trains) ~ 50 s for TESLA (20 frames/bunch train) low mult. scatt term important for efficient charm ID and B vertex charge; quantitative physics examples are now being studied …

6 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 6 The good enough vertex detector has yet to be built Collider vertex detectors have often restricted the capability of their experiments for leading edge physics: the possible top signal at 40 GeV in UA1 (early 80s) the possible Higgs signal in LEP B s signal in SLD [NOT considered when SLD was being designed!] Match to LC physics needs cannot be taken for granted R bp could strike again … Intensive R&D in several technologies will surely be justified (cost effective) in terms of LC physics reach The LC does offer a potential technical advantage (hence enhanced physics reach) wrt the inferno at the heart of LHC

7 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 7 The SLD experience …

8 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 8 Candidate detector architectures

9 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 9

10 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 10 MAPS Standard CMOS process: signal charge is collected onto gate of front- end transistor from undepleted bulk or epitaxial layer However this isnt obligatory – early developments by Sherwood Parker et al, with 300 µm fully depleted devices were highly successful First results from Strasbourg group were also based on few mm 2 devices and minimal in-pixel logic Recently, using 0.35 µm CMOS, increasing functionality is being implemented at the periphery of the chip Due to limited g m of in-pixel transistors (?) 50 µs readout time requires sideways column architecture – MAPS(2) Flexible active pixel idea (Renato Turchetta at RAL) could be a more favourable architecture for TESLA – MAPS(1)

11 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 11 DEPFET Based on detector-grade high resistivity silicon, fully depleted Requirement of supporting CMOS chips on 2 sides may be a significant limitation HAPS (incl new SoI-inspired) Read 1 in N pixels, by analogy with capacitive charge division in strip detectors Spatial resolution tends to be somewhat unstable Implications for 2-track resolution? SoI approach could reduce material, but looks pretty complex (?)

12 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 12 MIMOSA-5 Strasbourg group

13 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 13 FAPS could be extended to a full 20 samples per train, stored in pixel If this doesnt fit with 0.25 m CMOS, will surely be OK with 0.13 m Idea is to relax the requirement for fast, precise, signal transmission to chip periphery during train, and so render long columns feasible, with all processing logic outside the detector active volume, as for the CCD architecture Test devices implemented using a 0.25 m process – TSMC(imaging) FAPS: RAL group

14 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 14 MOS transistor instead of JFET A pixel size of ca. 20 x 20 µm² is achievable using 3µm minimum feature size. DEPFET Bonn/Munich group

15 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 15 thin detector-area down to 50µm frame for mechanical stability carries readout- and steering-chips first thinned samples: [L.Andricek, MPI Munich] matrix is read out row-wise

16 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 16 DEPFET pixel matrix - Read filled cells of a row - Clear the internal gates of the row - Read empty cells Low power consumption Fast random access to specific array regions

17 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 17 Hybrid Pixel Detector with Interleaved Pixels Charge carriers generated underneath one of the interleaved pixel cells induce a signal on the capacitively coupled read-out pixels, leading to a spatial accuracy improvement by a proper signal interpolation. readout pitch = n x pixel pitch Large enough to house the VLSI front-end cell Small enough for an effective sampling HAPS Insubria/Krakow group

18 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 18 Charge Sharing Studies – Resolution Resolution: –Interleaved pixels (efficient charge sharing): 3 m parameterization allows a coordinate reconstruction and resolution measurement function Average resolutionResolution vs. spot position

19 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 19 SOI detector Detector handlable wafer –High resistivity –300 m thick Electronics active layer –Low resistivity –1.5 m thick –Readout pixels (min charge sharing): 10 m Detector: conventional p + -n, DC-coupled Electronics: preliminary solution – conventional bulk MOS technology on the thick SOI substrate Insubria/Krakow group

20 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 20 RF pickup suppression Beam-associated RF radiation penetrating the beam-pipe (even 0.5 mm Be) appears to be negligible However, flanges, BPM cables, etc can permit RF radiation to leak out SLD experience: analogue signals stored securely in CCD buried channel Digital logic (PLL in optical links) was disrupted – fortunately could be restored within some tens of s of collisions) NLC/JLC: could envisage similar settling/restoration before readout TESLA: need to read detector repeatedly during train, to internal storage of sparsified data each internal frame readout spans ~150 BX, so electronics is hit repeatedly by whatever RF is present For SLD VTX, this would have been fatal

21 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 21 The problem: 10 9 signals being read in an electrically hyperactive environment could produce a data deluge contrast between two different collider options and at least 5 detector options Discussion points: Reality check: 300 Mpixels at SLD CCD-based detector at NLC (natural evolution) CCD-based detector at TESLA Other detector technologies at NLC/TESLA

22 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 22 CCD signal storage and sensing: Classic CCD Readout time N M/F out N M N Column Parallel CCD Readout time = N/F out

23 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 23 Signal charge from MIP stored safely in buried channel of device During readout, charge is transferred to output node Classical Correlated Double Sampling (CDS): RESET/READ 1/TRANSFER/READ 2 (originally to suppress reset noise) Sparse data scenario permits faster (but equivalent) noise suppression: RESET/READ 1/TRANSFER/READ 2/TRANSFER/READ 3/ …

24 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 24 In addition, Extended Row Filter (ERF) can suppress pickup:

25 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 25 SLD experience: Readout at 5 MHz, during quiet inter-bunch periods of 8 ms duration Without ERF, rate of trigger pixels would have deluged the DAQ system

26 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 26 For NLC, substitute bunch train for bunch Otherwise, as at SLD, and expect same strategy to work Can again wait many s for beam-related pickup to die away CPCCD lends itself to required functionality in readout chip

27 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 27 For TESLA, one enters uncharted waters Must read during most of 337 ns between bunches (17 samples at 50 MHz in CPCCD) Could cut to say 14 samples giving ~ 50 ns settling time. Will this suffice? What will be the noise penalty due to pickup between samples N and N+1?

28 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 28 DEPFET pixel DEPFET enjoys same strengths as CCD regarding CDS However, ERF would slow down the readout correspondingly [N samples before and after RESET would imply N-fold increase in readout time]

29 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 29 Basic MAPS architecture at TESLA Transverse readout to satisfy the 50 s requirement SAMPLE/RESET at 50 s intervals Will be OK for reset noise, but could be catastrophic for pickup from intervening 150 BXs Possible way out: Could do SAMPLE/RESET/SAMPLE within one BX, at 50 s intervals This would strongly suppress pickup while sacrificing the suppression of reset noise. Tolerable for C NODE < approx 10 fF Could also (at expense of readout time) implement CCD-like ERF if required

30 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 30

31 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 31 FAPS or FAPS(CAP) concept: Renato Turchetta Flexible APS permits storage of 20 samples during train Readout of above-threshold pixel hits and their neighbours proceeds at leisure in the 200 ms between trains This will permit longitudinal readout, with benefit to material budget However, CDS options are no different than for MAPS

32 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 32 New concept: FAPS(CCD) MIPs which hit the storage register (<10% area) leave a small spurious signal – easily handled by software Lessons being learned about CCDs with reduced clock amplitude (eg without barrier implants) will feed directly into this design concept Increasing availability of mixed CCD/CMOS technology at a few foundries including Sarnoff in USA

33 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 33 Column-pair readout of sparse data (analogue signals to ADCs at ends of ladder) Manufacturability would require not only mixed technology, but also large area precise stitching, etc Could provide the ultimate in pickup immunity, but will this be necessary?

34 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 34 CONCLUSIONS (on pickup) Pace of development of silicon pixel devices {CCD, MAPS, FAPS(CAP), FAPS(CCD), DEPFET, SOI, HAPS, …} is breathtaking High level of pickup immunity can surely be engineered into some or all of these architectures If at end of this year, we have a warm machine, we can relax and focus mainly on other criteria If TESLA, suggest producing a serious BDS mockup to simulate pickup effects In either case, expect surprises from 10 9 pixels in the LC environment, so its probably wise to back contrasting technologies for the (assumed) two detectors, in order to spread the risk At SLD, we were lucky in being able to retro-fit the ERF. Inadvisable to assume this luck will hold, in the unknown territory to be explored next time …

35 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 35 LCFI R&D programme Novel CCDs and readout electronics CCD sizes similar to SLD, but readout needs to be times faster Eliminate bulky electronics which would degrade fwd tracking and calorimetry Total of 800 Mpixels, cf 307 Mpixels for SLD TESLA readout requirement stimulated concept of column parallel operation This implies an innovative CCD/CMOS hybrid. If successful, this architecture may also be preferred for NLC/JLC. However, for this case, the conventional architecture with a multi-output linear register may suffice

36 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 36 Classic CCD Readout time N M/F out N M N Column Parallel CCD Readout time = N/F out CPCCD has max possible readout speed, for given noise performance Readout IC (amp+ADC on 20 m pitch) only became available with deep submicron CMOS technology TESLA requires parallel register clocking at 50 MHz: 1 MHz is fine for NLC

37 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 37 electronics only at the ends of the ladders bump-bonded assembly between thinned CPCCD and DSM readout chip readout chip does all the signal processing, yielding sparsified digital data CPCCD is driven with high frequency, low voltage clocks (currently 2 V, goal around 1 V peak-peak) low inductance layout is required for clock delivery

38 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 38 Standard 2-phase implant Metallised gates (high speed) Metallised gates (high speed) Field-enhanced 2-phase implant (high speed) Source followers Source followers Direct 2-stage source followers To pre-amps Readout ASIC Readout ASIC Features of our first CPCCD: 2 different charge transfer regions 3 types of output circuitry Independent CPCCD and readout chip testing possible: without readout chip - use external wire bonded electronics without bump bonding - use wire bonds to readout chip finally, bump-bonded Different readout concepts can be tested (direct charge sensing, and voltage sensing via source follower)

39 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 39 Direct connections and 2-stage source followers 1-stage source followers and direct connections on 20 μm pitch CPC-1 fully tested standalone, wire-bonded assembly now under test

40 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 40

41 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 41 Single pixel events seen in one column of CPC-1 with 2 V peak-peak clocks

42 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 42 FIFO bit flash ADCs Charge Amplifiers Voltage Amplifiers Wire/bump bond pads

43 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 43 CPR-1 fully tested standalone

44 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 44 LCFI R&D Thinnest possible detector layers 3 approaches Unsupported silicon Semi-supported silicon Supported silicon Unsupported approach attractive – like wires in a drift chamber Works beautifully along ladder length (sagitta stability around 2 microns) However, processed thin CCD is not like a wire: its an inhomogeneous membrane in which transverse stresses may lead to somewhat uncontrollable shape Also, we have concerns about handling issues, for attaching readout chips etc Not abandoned, but semi-supported approach may be more practicable

45 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 45

46 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 46 CCD brought down Assembly after shim removal and curing Beryllium substrate (250 μm) Beryllium substrate with adhesive balls Thinned CCD ( 20 μm) Adhesive Shims 1 mm 0.2mm

47 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 47 Thin ladder design concept – technology-independent Maybe replace beryllium by some foam material – whatever gives best stiffness for least radiation length, regardless of thermal expansion properties SLD had glue pads, which implies compression of silicon under cooldown. How to do better in 21 st C? Micromechanical structure

48 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 48 Route to convergence Preferred vertex detector technology(ies) to be selected on basis of full-size, fully operational prototype ladders (around 2010?) Choice probably time dependent: what can be ready for startup could well be superseded later [eg at SLC: silicon microstrips were replaced by CCDs in 1990] Convenient access to IR is an essential requirement (for the entire inner detector system) Community should resist pressure from funding agencies to pick the winner, since a premature choice of technology could seriously degrade the physics potential Good international communication is building a proto-collaboration for the VTX (eg world-wide phone conferences during regional workshops) Probably wise to eventually select two contrasting VTX technologies for the (presumed) two LC detectors – spread the risks

49 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 49 Construction, commissioning, operation and physics When choice has been made, some groups (technically oriented) will prefer to develop their technology for other applications or possible upgrades Others (particle physics oriented) will wish to contribute to the construction of the first detector(s), followed by commissioning then physics The detector construction should be encouraged as a world-wide endeavour, in spirit of GDN SLD ladders (via UPS) SanJose SLAC e2V Brunel SLAC Yale MIT SLAC Make mbds Test mbds Fit CCDs Mech QC Functional test Fit blocks Opt survey Intstall

50 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 50 Synergy with other science Pixel detectors are uniquely inter-disciplinary Example from fall of the wall in structural biology (J Hajdu, TESLA colloquium) 120 Hz frame rate needed at LCLS (with 14 bit dynamic range) SNAP, XEUS, biological cell imaging, … Fast Gigapixel-scale imaging systems are widely needed, and the LC vertex detector community is contributing to their development

51 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 51 5layers 4 layers, double Clear performance difference between configurations Charm suffers most, B tagging is easy

52 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 52 New procedure to attach track to vertices Charged B, up to 89% correct tag, 6-8% worse for 4 layer double thickness configuration Charged D, excellent purity, less difference between configurations

53 Jan C Damerell LC technologies LBL 53 Neutral B: dipole Maintain, develop and improve tools Provide them to the physics community so we can get feed- back on detector parameters from various physics channels Make a transition to Java/JAS environment

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