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11 th RAL Masterclass Introduction Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 12 – 14 March 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "11 th RAL Masterclass Introduction Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 12 – 14 March 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 11 th RAL Masterclass Introduction Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 12 – 14 March 2008

2 2 Probing Matter Shorter wavelengths means higher energies.

3 3 Higher Energies Reveal Deeper Structure

4 4 E = mc 2 E kT Particle Physics Astronomy

5 5 Cosmic Particles Interactions in the atmosphere Low flux of particles Difficult to identify/control Accelerators!

6 6 Force on charged particle is given by the Lorentz Force Charged Particle Beams Electric Field Acceleration Magnetic Field Bending Cathode(-) Anode(+) e-e- p+p+ e+e+ e-e-

7 7 John Cockroft & Ernest Walton Voltage Multiplier – Cavendish Laboratory, – J.J. Thomson

8 8 Cockroft/Walton Pre-Injectors 750kV FermiLab 665 kV ISIS, RAL (replaced 2004)

9 9 Fermilab (400 MeV) Alternating RF voltage. Each step gives a small energy increase to the particle. LINEAR ACCELERATORS

10 10 2 mile Linear Accelerator, SLAC, Stanford Worlds longest building Worlds straightest building

11 11 Cyclotron First circular particle accelerator built by Ernest O. Lawrence & Stanley Livingston at Berkeley in Energy = 80 keV, Diameter = 13cm Circular Accelerators 13 cm

12 12 In a Collider, bunches of particles/antiparticles circulate in opposite directions. PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF A SYNCHROTRON

13 13 Super Proton Synchrotron CERN, Geneva (6km circumference)

14 14 Radio Frequency Cavities Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) kmcircumference 3,000bending magnets 800focussing magnets 11,000revolutions/sec LEP (CERN)

15 15 Electromagnetic waves accelerate particles in the same way that waves propel surfers. Timing is vital!

16 16 Sextupole (LEP) Correction of chromatic spread. Focussing Magnets Quadrupole (LEP) Strong Focussing Beam alternately focussed in horiz and vert planes.

17 17 Tevatron, FermiLab, Chicago Collides protons and anti-protons Energy = 1 TeV (1000 GeV) 4 mile circumference Main injector Tevatron

18 18 velocity(proton)= c Large Hadron Collider (LHC) This afternoon This afternoon 7 TeV protons colliding with 7 TeV protons. 27km circumference. Starts operation later in ,000 cryomagnets. 40,000 tons of metal cooled to -271°C. 2835x2835 bunches, protons/bunch, Crossing rate 40MHz.

19 19 Synchrotron Radiation Diamond Light Source Started operation: Feb Uses synchrotron radiation for studies at molecular/atomic level. e You are here

20 20 International Linear Collider ~31 km 250 GeV electrons colliding with 250 GeV positrons 8 February 2007Reference Design Report 2010Engineering Design 2019 – 2025?Operation?? The Next Generation?

21 21 Masterclass Programme 09:30Arrival, Coffee and Doughnuts (R22) 10:00WelcomeElizabeth Clarke 10:05IntroductionDr. Glenn Patrick 10:20Fundamentals of Particle PhysicsDr. Stefania Ricciardi 11:00Introducing ISIS and DiamondDr. Martyn Bull 11:35Group A: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group B: Computer StudyDrs. Tricoli & Wielers 12:30Buffet Lunch (R18) 13:30The Large Hadron ColliderDr. Monica Wielers 14:15Group B: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group A: Computer StudyDrs. Tricoli & Wielers 15:15 Tea Opportunity for video link with CERN 15:30Applications of Particle AcceleratorsDr. Rob Edgecock 16:00Question and Answer Session 16:15End Material can be found at:

22 22 Masterclass Programme 09:30Arrival, Coffee and Doughnuts (R22) 10:00WelcomeElizabeth Clarke 10:05IntroductionDr. Glenn Patrick 10:20Fundamentals of Particle PhysicsDr. Stefania Ricciardi 11:00Introducing ISIS and DiamondDr. Martyn Bull 11:35Group A: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group B: Computer StudyDrs. Tricoli & Wielers 12:30Buffet Lunch (R18) 13:30The Large Hadron ColliderDr. Monica Wielers 14:15Group B: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group A: Computer StudyDrs. Tricoli & Wielers 15:15 Tea 15:30Applications of Particle AcceleratorsDr. Rob Edgecock 16:00Question and Answer Session 16:15End Material can be found at:


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