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**Rutherford Appleton Laboratory**

RAL Masterclasses 2009 INTRODUCTION A Very Brief Guide to Accelerators Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

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**Microscopes & Telescopes ~ 400 Years Ago**

Galileo’s telescope, ~1609, Florence Magnification ~30 Compound microscope ~1670, Glasgow Magnification ~30 Micrographia Robert Hooke, 1665 Siderius Nuncius, Galileo Galilei, 1610

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**Small Scales and Large Scales - Today**

Large Hadron Collider (2009) Hubble Ultra Deep Field (2004)

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Particle Physics Astronomy E = mc2 E kT

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**Higher energies means shorter wavelengths.**

Probing Matter Higher energies means shorter wavelengths.

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**Cosmic Particles Accelerators! Interactions in the atmosphere**

Low flux of particles Difficult to identify/control Accelerators!

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**Charged Particle Beams**

Force on charged particle is given by the Lorentz Force e+ e- Electric Field Acceleration Magnetic Field Bending Cathode(-) Anode(+) p+ e-

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**John Cockroft & Ernest Walton Voltage Multiplier**

1897 – J.J. Thomson John Cockroft & Ernest Walton Voltage Multiplier Cavendish Laboratory, 1932.

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**Cockroft/Walton Pre-Injectors 750kV FermiLab 665 kV ISIS, RAL**

(replaced 2004)

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**+ + + - + Fermilab (400 MeV) LINEAR ACCELERATORS -**

Alternating RF voltage. Each step gives a small energy increase to the particle.

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**2 mile Linear Accelerator, SLAC, Stanford**

World’s straightest building World’s longest building

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**Circular Accelerators**

Cyclotron First circular particle accelerator built by Ernest O. Lawrence & Stanley Livingston at Berkeley in 1930. Energy = 80 keV, Diameter = 13cm 13 cm

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**Principal Components of a Synchrotron**

In a Collider, bunches of particles/antiparticles circulate in opposite directions.

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**Super Proton Synchrotron**

CERN, Geneva (6km circumference)

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**Radio Frequency Cavities**

LEP (CERN) Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) 27 km circumference 3,000 bending magnets 800 focussing magnets 11,000 revolutions/sec

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**Electromagnetic waves accelerate particles in the same way that waves propel surfers.**

Timing is vital!

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**Correction of chromatic spread.**

Focussing Magnets Quadrupole (LEP) Strong Focussing Beam alternately focussed in horiz and vert planes. Sextupole (LEP) Correction of chromatic spread.

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**HERA – Electron Proton Collider (6.3 km)**

Hamburg, 920 GeV protons 27.5 GeV electrons/positrons p e ɣ proton

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**Collides protons and anti-protons**

Tevatron, FermiLab, Chicago Tevatron Main injector Collides protons and anti-protons Energy = 1 TeV (1000 GeV) 4 mile circumference

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**Synchrotron Radiation**

Diamond Light Source e You are here Started operation Feb Uses synchrotron radiation for studies at molecular/atomic level.

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**International Linear Collider**

The Next Generation? ~31 km 250 GeV electrons colliding with 250 GeV positrons 8 February 2007 Reference Design Report 2010 – 2012 Technical Design Phase ? Construction/Operation

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**Masterclass Programme**

09:30 Arrival, Coffee and Doughnuts (R18) 10:00 Welcome Caroline Callard 10:05 A Very Brief Guide to Accelerators Dr. Glenn Patrick 10:20 Fundamentals of Particle Physics Dr. Stefania Ricciardi 11:00 Introducing Diamond Dr. David Price 11:15 Introducing ISIS Dr. Martyn Bull 11:35 Group A: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group B: Computer Session Drs. Tricoli & Wielers 12:30 Buffet Lunch (R18) 13:30 The Large Hadron Collider Dr. Kristian Harder 14:15 Group B: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group A: Computer Session Drs. Tricoli & Wielers 15:15 Tea 15:30 Applications of Particle Accelerators Dr. Rob Edgecock 16:00 Question and Answer Session 16:15+ End Material can be found at:

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Energy Units! Electron Volt – Energy gained by an electron when accelerated in an electric field through a potential difference of 1 volt. 1 eV = 1 electron Volt Energy to ionise hydrogen = 13.6 eV 1 keV(kilo) = 1,000 eV = 103 eV Medical X-ray ~ 200 keV 1 MeV(Mega) = 1,000,000 eV = 106 eV Alpha particle decay of uranium 4.2 MeV 1 GeV(Giga) = 1,000,000,000 eV = 109 eV LEP collider beam ( ) = 45 GeV 1 TeV(Tera) = 1,000,000,000,000 eV = 1012 eV Highest energy accelerator in world = 1 TeV (Tevatron) Highest energies found in cosmic rays (>1020 eV)

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