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Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory INTRODUCTION A Very Brief Guide to Accelerators RAL Masterclasses.

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Presentation on theme: "Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory INTRODUCTION A Very Brief Guide to Accelerators RAL Masterclasses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory INTRODUCTION A Very Brief Guide to Accelerators RAL Masterclasses 2009

2 2 Microscopes & Telescopes ~ 400 Years Ago Galileos telescope, ~1609, Florence Magnification ~30 Compound microscope ~1670, Glasgow Magnification ~30 Siderius Nuncius, Galileo Galilei, 1610 Micrographia Robert Hooke, 1665

3 3 Small Scales and Large Scales - Today Hubble Ultra Deep Field (2004) Large Hadron Collider (2009)

4 4 4 E = mc 2 E kT Particle Physics Astronomy

5 5 Probing Matter Higher energies means shorter wavelengths.

6 6 Cosmic Particles Accelerators! Interactions in the atmosphere Low flux of particles Difficult to identify/control

7 7 7 Force on charged particle is given by the Lorentz Force Charged Particle Beams Electric Field Acceleration Magnetic Field Bending Cathode(-) Anode(+) e-e- p+p+ e+e+ e-e-

8 8 8 John Cockroft & Ernest Walton Voltage Multiplier Cavendish Laboratory, – J.J. Thomson

9 9 9 Cockroft/Walton Pre-Injectors 750kV FermiLab 665 kV ISIS, RAL (replaced 2004)

10 10 Fermilab (400 MeV) Alternating RF voltage. Each step gives a small energy increase to the particle. LINEAR ACCELERATORS

11 11 2 mile Linear Accelerator, SLAC, Stanford Worlds longest building Worlds straightest building

12 12 Cyclotron First circular particle accelerator built by Ernest O. Lawrence & Stanley Livingston at Berkeley in Energy = 80 keV, Diameter = 13cm Circular Accelerators 13 cm

13 13 Principal Components of a Synchrotron In a Collider, bunches of particles/antiparticles circulate in opposite directions.

14 14 Super Proton Synchrotron CERN, Geneva (6km circumference)

15 15 Radio Frequency Cavities Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) kmcircumference 3,000bending magnets 800focussing magnets 11,000revolutions/sec LEP (CERN)

16 16 Electromagnetic waves accelerate particles in the same way that waves propel surfers. Timing is vital!

17 17 Sextupole (LEP) Correction of chromatic spread. Focussing Magnets Quadrupole (LEP) Strong Focussing Beam alternately focussed in horiz and vert planes.

18 18 HERA – Electron Proton Collider (6.3 km) p 920 GeV protons 27.5 GeV electrons/positrons e ɣ proton Hamburg,

19 19 Tevatron, FermiLab, Chicago Collides protons and anti-protons Energy = 1 TeV (1000 GeV) 4 mile circumference Main injector Tevatron

20 20 Synchrotron Radiation Diamond Light Source Started operation Feb Uses synchrotron radiation for studies at molecular/atomic level. e You are here

21 21 International Linear Collider ~31 km 250 GeV electrons colliding with 250 GeV positrons 8 February 2007Reference Design Report 2010 – 2012Technical Design Phase ?Construction/Operation The Next Generation?

22 22 Masterclass Programme 09:30Arrival, Coffee and Doughnuts (R18) 10:00WelcomeCaroline Callard 10:05A Very Brief Guide to AcceleratorsDr. Glenn Patrick 10:20Fundamentals of Particle PhysicsDr. Stefania Ricciardi 11:00Introducing DiamondDr. David Price 11:15Introducing ISISDr. Martyn Bull 11:35Group A: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group B: Computer SessionDrs. Tricoli & Wielers 12:30Buffet Lunch (R18) 13:30The Large Hadron ColliderDr. Kristian Harder 14:15Group B: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group A: Computer SessionDrs. Tricoli & Wielers 15:15Tea 15:30Applications of Particle AcceleratorsDr. Rob Edgecock 16:00Question and Answer Session 16:15+End Material can be found at:

23 23 Energy Units! 1 eV= 1 electron Volt Energy to ionise hydrogen = 13.6 eV 1 keV(kilo)=1,000 eV= 10 3 eV Medical X-ray ~ 200 keV 1 MeV(Mega)=1,000,000 eV= 10 6 eV Alpha particle decay of uranium 4.2 MeV 1 GeV(Giga)=1,000,000,000 eV= 10 9 eV LEP collider beam ( ) = 45 GeV 1 TeV(Tera)=1,000,000,000,000 eV= eV Highest energy accelerator in world = 1 TeV (Tevatron) Electron Volt – Energy gained by an electron when accelerated in an electric field through a potential difference of 1 volt. Highest energies found in cosmic rays (>10 20 eV)

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