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Claire McConnell A new Saharan dust source activation frequency map derived from MSG-SEVIRI IR-channels.

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Presentation on theme: "Claire McConnell A new Saharan dust source activation frequency map derived from MSG-SEVIRI IR-channels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Claire McConnell A new Saharan dust source activation frequency map derived from MSG-SEVIRI IR-channels

2 Background Chemical, physical & optical properties of dust particles vary with source and transport paths Adequate description of source areas is a prerequisite for estimates of effects of dust on climate, dust under changing climate, and dust forecast models

3 Previous Information on Dust Sources Aerosol Index (AI) from TOMS/OMI –Regions of high AI used as a proxy for dust source areas, & agree with locations of enclosed topographic depressions (Prospero et al., 2002) Deep Blue algorithm (Hsu et al., 2004) –SeaWIFS and MODIS – blue part of spectrum Meteosat 1 IDDI (Infrared Difference Dust Index) (Brooks & Legrand, 2000) Sun synchronous over pass (OMI) at 13:45 local time Time resolution = daily

4 Satellite Based Dust Retrieval from MSG MSG satellite located at 3.5ºW above equator Sampling rate 15mins, resolution = 3km at nadir SEVIRI ( Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager – see Schmetz et al., 2002 ) brightness temperature differences (BTDs) used EUMETSAT website ( offers a dust index product using – μm dust decreases the BTD – μm dust decreases the BTD thermal emissivity of desert sfc low at 8.7μm compared to 10.8μm Effective over desert and at night time


6 Evaluation of MSG Dust Product SEVIRI 0.6μm channel (visible) over dark ocean Daily emission from Bodele evident AOD at AERONET stations – Banizoumbou, Cinzana, Dakar Visibility at WMO stations Faya-Largeau, Abeche, Bilma, Nguigmi, Agadez and Zinder Good agreement

7 Source Detection High spatiotemporal resolution allows dust plumes to be traced back to their sources 1º by 1º source activation map created for the Saharan region Monthly frequency of source activation events for each cell calculated March 2006 – February 2007

8 Red Sea Mts Bodele Depression active all year Massif lAir, Adrar Mts, Sebkhas Mekherrane and Azzel Matti DJF SONJJA MAM Catabatic flows around mountains are important for dust source activation Strong sfc winds forced by convective clouds/squall lines are especially important in summer Land-Sea regional circulations may activate dust sources in northern Libya Seasonal changes in meteorology activates different dust sources

9 Comparison with OMI derived sources July 2006 OMI derived sources are shifted downwind of MSG sources OMI samples at 13:45 local time Dust sources activated around morning or early evening, leading to a bias in OMI- retrieved sources OMI has difficulties in retrieving aerosol below 1.5km altitude – may not detect dust close to sources MSG OMI

10 Model Application Use LM-MUSCAT regional dust transport model for 5-10 March 2006] Dust emission based on Tegen et al. (2002) Resolution 28km, 40 vertical layers Set dust emission to zero for grid boxes where activation <4 per year Original model used as a reference case – uses topographic depressions parameterized as hot spots of dust emission

11 New source map improves modelled AOT compared to reference case Correlation between modelled and observed AOT increases from 0.7 to 0.9

12 Conclusions & Limitations High spatiotemporal resolution of MSG makes detection of individual dust events possible and geostationary satellite data allows detection of dust close to source Allows compilation of 1º by 1º dust surface activation frequency map for March Feb 2007 Detection of dust emission in the presence of clouds is limited (What about existing dust storms passing over a new source area?) Potential to improve performance of regional scale Saharan dust models compared to earlier source parameterizations Future plans – extend results for sources over upcoming years, additional plans for modelling comparisons

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