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Eddy correlation method for estimating surface fluxes Group B3 Robert Lee Eleanor Huddleston Robert Smith

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A graph to show temperature against time

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A graph to show wind speeds u, v and w against time

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Summary of values Calculated variables and parameters Mast 1 (Group B3) Mast 2 (Group B4) Eddy covariance -0.074±0.022m 2 s -2 -0.078±0.037 m 2 s -2 Eddy covariance 0.049±0.022m 2 s -2 0.042±0.020 m 2 s -1 Friction velocityu * 0.273±0.043ms -1 0.280±0.077 ms -1 Momentum fluxτ 0.090±0.026Nm -2 0.094±0.045 Nm -2 Roughness lengthz 0 0.095±0.011m0.090±0.046 m Sensible heat fluxH 59.022±27.124 Wm -2 50.810±24.339 Wm -2 Turbulent intensity 0.404±0.0150.406±0.024 Turbulent efficiencyR uw -0.203±-0.014-0.194±-0.049

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Error calculation The biggest source of error was from sampling error with changing conditions leading to errors in trends. So errors were calculated by using the first 10 minutes of the 20 minute sampling period and recalculating the data, then the error was the difference between half the period and the full period.

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Interpretation of the values Calculated variables and parameters Mast 1 (Group B3) Mast 2 (Group B4) Eddy covariance uw -0.074±0.022m 2 s -2 -0.078±0.037 m 2 s -2 Eddy covariance wT 0.049±0.022m 2 s -2 0.042±0.020 m 2 s -1 Friction velocityu * 0.273±0.043ms -1 0.280±0.077 ms -1 Momentum fluxτ 0.090±0.026Nm -2 0.094±0.045 Nm -2 The eddy covariance components u w and w T are very small. This is due to the small weak eddies. Why is one covariance negative and one positive? The frictional velocity ( u * ) is smaller than the mean u velocity we calculated. This is what you expect as this takes into account the surface friction which decreases the mean wind speed. The momentum flux ( τ ) is the force exerted on the surface by the air being dragged over it, called the surface shearing stress ( τ ). The frictional influence generates this shearing force and transmits it downward as a flux of momentum.

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Interpretation of the values Calculated variables and parameters Mast 1 (Group B3) Mast 2 (Group B4) Roughness lengthz 0 0.095±0.011m0.090±0.046 m Sensible heat fluxH 59.022±27.124 Wm -2 50.810±24.339 Wm -2 The length z 0 is a measure of aerodynamic roughness of the surface, which is given to be 0.01m for our atmospheric observatory. It is related but not equal to the height of the roughness elements. z 0 roughly one tenth of the average height of objects nearby. Typical values of z 0 vary from about 0.1 × 10 -5 metres for ice or water to about 5 or 6 meters for forests (extremely vegetated surfaces). In theory it states that grass has a roughness length between 0.003 and 0.01 metres. The sensible heat flux ( H ) for an average sunny day is 80 Wm -2. Our value was nearly 60 Wm -2, so this compares reasonably well.

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Interpretation of the values Calculated variables and parameters Mast 1 (Group B3) Mast 2 (Group B4) Turbulent intensity σ u /u 0.404±0.0150.406±0.024 Turbulent efficiencyR uw -0.203±-0.014-0.194±-0.049 The turbulence intensity value appears to be rather low, when you compare it with the surface roughness value, as it is a measure of the gustiness. The turbulent efficiency values agree with the theoretical value of -0.3

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Assumptions made and their likely validity Topography of the land is assumed to be relatively homogeneous, without obstructions by obstacles. Weather conditions throughout the sample period were assumed to be consistent. We assumed that the atmospheric conditions of the boundary layer were neutral.

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Instrumental effects / problems The Gill propeller anemometers do attract some errors due to the nature of their shape so the thickness of the propellers means that it influenced by wind flowing in the perpendicular plane to the propeller In the lower wind conditions the propeller anemometers did tend to stick slightly, which would lead to a slight underestimation of the values, however through the IOP the wind conditions were generally sufficiently high for this to rarely occur

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