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Chapter 14: Adolescence and Biosocial Development

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1 Chapter 14: Adolescence and Biosocial Development
Dr. M. Davis-Brantley

2 Puberty and Adolescence
Adolescence-is the period of biological, cognitive, and psychosocial transition from childhood to adulthood, usually lasting a decade or so Puberty-is a period of rapid growth and sexual change that occurs in early adolescence and produces a person of adult size, shape, and sexual potential

3 Sequence of Puberty Girls Boys
Ovaries increase production of estrogen/progesterone (9) Uterus and vagina begin to grow (9 ½) Breasts begin to appear (10) Pubic hair begins to appear (11) Weight increase (11) Widening of hips due to muscle and organ growth (12) Menarche (12 ½) Full breast growth (18) Boys Testes increase production of testosterone (9 ½) Testes and scrotum grow larger (10) Pubic hair begins to grow (11 ½) Penis growth begins (12) Spermarche (first ejaculation)(12 ½) Peak height spurt (13) Peak muscle and organ growth, shoulders become broad (14) Voice lowers (14) Visible facial hair appears (15)

4 Hormones Hormones are responsible for all aspects of growth and development and are controlled by the hypothalamus Hypothalamus regulates maintenance activities (eating, body temp.) and directs the production of hormones Pituitary Gland Responds to signals from the hypothalamus to produce growth hormones and regulate growth Adrenal Glands—secrete hormones Gonads—are the first parts of the body to enlarge at puberty because they produce hormones as well as gametes (sperm and ova) Female gonads are ovaries Male gonads are testicles Estrogen—Sex hormone secreted in large amounts by females Testosterone—Sex hormone secreted in large amounts by males Remember:Both genders produce both sex hormones See Figure 14.1 on page 343

5 Timing of Puberty Timing is easy to notice: Girls begin puberty ahead of boys Video: GIRLS vs BOYS As early as 10 years old, some girls begin to develop breasts, whereas boys can take up to age 17 to begin developing Girls tend to be 2 years ahead of boys in development Menarche is the first menstrual period, which occurs between ages 9 and 15 (average:12 years old) Spermarche is the male’s first ejaculation (harder to pinpoint in time) Body fat: Onset of puberty correlates with weight Menarche does not usually occur until a girl weight about 100 lbs.

6 Sexual Maturation Primary Sex Characteristics are the sex organs that are involved in reproduction includes vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis During puberty, every primary sex organ becomes much larger Females: Ovaries and Uterus grow, and the Vaginal lining thickens Males Testes grow and the penis lengthens and the scrotum enlarges and becomes pendulous (hangs loosely) Secondary Sex Characteristics are body characteristics that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity, such as a man’s beard or woman’s breasts Females: Slight rise around nipples, budding breast Males: Areola develops, larynx (Adam’s apple)

7 Teen Sexuality Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections
Teenage Pregnancy Pregnancy occurring within 1-2 years after menarche can result in increase risk of spontaneous abortion, high blood pressure, stillbirth, Cesarean section, etc… The body is not yet prepared to handle a pregnancy Women who have given birth under age 16 tend to be shorter, sicker as adults, and die at younger age Babies of young mothers have more birth and growth complications. They experience more mistreatment and it can result in less academic achievement Sexual Abuse Sexual Abuse is the use of an unconsenting person for one’s own sexual pleasure. Sexual activity is abusive whenever it is not mutual, whenever consent is not freely given, or whenever a person does not understand or feels obligates to agree to a sexual encounter Child sexual abuse is any activity in which an adult uses a child for his/her own sexual stimulation or pleasure—even if it does not involve physical contact. Child pornography, fondling, and lewd comments by strangers are all examples of child sexual abuse

8 Drug Use and Abuse Drug use—the simple ingestion of a drug
Drug abuse—the ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user’s biological or psychological well-being Drug addiction—A situation in which a person craves more of a drug in order to feel desired physiological or psychological effects “Gateway drugs”

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