Presentation on theme: "Integrating Qualitative Research into Quantitative Research"— Presentation transcript:
1Integrating Qualitative Research into Quantitative Research Module 3Sessions 10&11
2IntroductionSynopsis: This session will entail a discussion on why and how to integrate qualitative research into quantitative researchLearning Objectives: At the end of this session participants should have developed an understanding of why and how to integrate qualitative research with quantitative research work. They should also appreciate the need for integrating qualitative into quantitative research approaches
3ContentSelecting a sample and collecting data using Focus Group Discussions, Key Informant Interviews and Observation.Output: participants will collect qualitative data using any of the qualitative methods
4ActivitiesActivity 1: Introduce qualitative research to the participants minActivity 2: Help the participants appreciate the complimentary role of qualitative methods 30minActivity 3:Explain the different qualitative methods minActivity 4: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods above minActivity 5: Practicals / Presentations within the participants min
5Why Integrate qualitative and quantitative methods Basing on the strengths and weaknesses/advantages and disadvantages of quantitative methods usedFor example: Results from the quantitative research can be generalized while those of qualitative may notQuantitative research may answer: when, what, who, how but not why; which can be answered by qualitative research
6Cont’dIt is not for the sake of integrating the two methods; but some better results must be realizedQualitative research is effective in identifying intangible factors such as social norms, gender roles, whose role in research may not be readily apparent
7Cont’dQualitative research emphasizes quality than quantity, depth more than breadth, insights rather than generalizationWhen used along with quantitative data, it helps interpret and better understand the complex reality of a given situation and the implications of quantitative data
8How to integrate the two methods: Therefore, identify the strengths/weaknesses of the primary methodThen identify a secondary method which can fill in the gaps
9What is Qualitative Research? This is a type of scientific Research which collects, analyzes and interprets data that cannot easily be reduced to numbersThis type of data relates to the social world and the concepts and behaviors of people within itQualitative research seeks to understand a given research problem or topic from the perspective/view point of the population under the study
10Cont’dIt seeks to promote greater understanding not only of the way things are, but also of why they are the way they areIt is works best in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of a particular populationThe purpose of qualitative research is to produce rich data from a sample chosen for its ability to speak to the issue
11Cont’dQualitative research emphasizes quality than quantity, depth more than breadth, insights rather than generalizationWhen used along with quantitative data, it helps interpret and better understand the complex reality of a given situation and the implications of quantitative data
12Characteristics of Qualitative Research Asks why, how, and under what circumstances things occurSeeks Depth of UnderstandingViews Social phenomena holisticallyExplores and discoversProvides insight into the meanings of decisions and actionsUses interpretive and other open-ended methods
13Cont’d Is iterative rather than fixed Its is emergent rather than pre structuredInvolves respondents as active participants rather than subjectsDefines the investigator as an instrument in the research process
14Qualitative research methods These are several methods within this form of research of which are:-Focus group discussionsKey Informant InterviewsObservations
15FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS A group of 6-12 is assembled and engaged in an interaction to produce data and insights that would be less accessible without the interactionThe group put together should be fairly homogenous: Social status, experience/user status, sex, age etcIt useful in identifying normative issues, terms, perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, interpretation, from a group of individualsModerator is needed to guide and lead the discussion in a focused manner
16Cont’dNote taker, in charge of note taking and non verbal communicationTape recording is a requirement (ask for permission)Planned in advance, debriefing sessionsIs useful especially with beneficiariesThis is a type of Qualitative Research in which the researcher brings together small groups of people, 6–12 in number
17Cont’dThe Researcher plays the role of a modulator, and with an open instrument, the researcher engages the group in a discussion about the subject under investigation.The group is homogeneous in terms of the relevant variables for the study.It essentially relies on convenient sampling or Purposive samplingIf not well moderated with in depth probing may not yield enough data
18Cont’d Dominating characters should be controlled Timid Characters encouraged to participate
19These FGDs are basically used for securing background informationGetting feed back from project beneficiariesInterpreting available quantitative dataProject monitoring and evaluationAssessing responses to recommend for innovations, policies etc
20Advantages of using Focus Group Discussions It enables rapid generation of informationIt reduces individual inhibitions and hindrancesIt helps respondents to raise issues and concerns that the investigation may not have consideredThey allow an interaction between the respondents and the investigator, creating a more in depth understanding of peoples’ understanding and lives.
21Cont’dIts flexibility allows the researcher to use the responses to frame relevant and necessary questions.
22Disadvantages of using Focus Group Discussions Empirical generalisations cannot be from the dataLiable to interviewer biases since these are no structural questionsMay lead to fear of giving personal sensitive informationDespite the presence of the moderator, there are people who always dominate and those who cannot express themselves in-group discussions.
23Note: The role of moderator: to control those who may dominate the discussionto encourage those who may not feel free to talkto probe in case need arises
24Key Informant Interviews These are informal interviews directed to the knowledgeable people about the problem.These respondents may not necessarily be under the problem, but only with a sufficient knowledgeThese informants should be selected carefully to reflect diverse views and concerns.An interview guide with issues to be covered is used and it is carried out in an informal atmosphere.
25Cont’dProbes to elicit more information are made
26Selected Sample Any individual from which data can be secured Experts/Individuals who hold special positionsHave special/unique insights/experiences
27It is most appropriate when: A general descriptive information is sufficient for decision makingIt is necessary to know why a particular group of people behave the way they doMore light/interpretation is needed on the available quantitative data.The primary purpose of the study is to generate suggestions and recommendations.There is a need for proper questionnaire design, hypothesis and propositions for further testing and refinement.
28AdvantagesSince it is from knowledgeable persons, it reveals in-depth, inside information, to the extent of providing confidential information, which may not be the case in a formal settingIt is cheap to conduct this kind of interviewIt reveals new ideas, relevant to the study, which may not have been anticipated, in the planning process.Easy to locate potential respondents willing to give the information.
29DisadvantagesThe information cannot be generalised and therefore less reliable (ie incase it is biased).
30ObservationsObservation is “a purposive or intentional examination of something, particularly for purposes of data gathering” (Chaplain 1968)It is a careful watching and noting phenomena as they occur in their natural settingObservation falls in two categories:Physical things like cars, buildings, chairs etcSocial process eg social behaviour, culture, community relationships etc
31Cont’d It is based on a checklist or a form with what to be observed A detailed schedule with what to observe and how recordings are to be done is a requirementThere are basically three forms of observation:
32Non-Participant observation May observe without participating e.g observing a sessionIn this form of observation, there is careful watching and noting of events as they occur in their natural setting, without the Researcher’s participation. This form of observation has some problems:a) It is easy to identify the researcher since he is a stranger to the observed.
33Cont’dSome salient aspects may not be observed by the researcher.
34Observation with some participation: This is where in addition to observation, the researcher takes part in some activities. The problems involved include:-The researcher may not observe some other aspects in which he does not take part.The researcher may also fail to get real meaning of the practices leading to misinterpreting the information due to his own perceptions.
35Participant Observation: Participant Observation brings the researcher into direct interaction with people and their activitiesParticipation in the lives of the community, to observe the daily activities of people, to obtain an inside view of the situationInsider’s or outsider’s perspectiveInvolvement may be limited due to race, sex and other physical factors
36Cont’dIn addition to observing the subjects, the researcher shares in the life and activities of those under investigation.This requires living in the community for a considerable period of time. This help to eliminate suspension and the subjects won’t continuously change behaviour. It also gives adequate time to study the events and practices under investigation and helps the observer to can understand and properly interpret the practices
37This form of observation has some problems Possibility of failing to play a dual role of a participant and an observer, one of the two may be compromised.Once the observer is identified, he may fail to observe each and every aspect of the practice
38Advantages of observation Able to see and observe what exactly takes place in its natural form without any distortion – first hand informationData collected is up to date and there is no memory failureAdditional unexpected information may be gotCan be used when studying those who can not express themselves eg children, the deaf etcIt removes intentional lying eg about incomeRemoves error due to translation
39Disadvantages of observation In case of any suspicion, the subjects have the potential to change their behaviour and act otherwise.There is time constraint, in that some activities take place once for a period of time, so the researcher has to wait until that activity is performed.Some events are exclusive to none members and in such cases it is impossible to do observation.
40Cont’dIn case of observer bias, the observer may select on the activities that are more interesting, and the results may not be completeCan not get information on the past or future eventsWithout enough skills, the results may not be exhaustive and may not describe in totality the events in the field.There may be unfair and poor representative ness of things to observe. The observer may fail to select a representative sample of aspects to observeCan not get frequency of events
41Sampling in qualitative Research Looking at insights, depth rather than generalizationsSo Sampling is PurposiveSelecting a Sample for the qualitative study is not haphazard but neither is it bound by rigid rules of reproducibilitySampling Techniques
42Cont’dQualitative design is to explore depth, the investigator carefully selects cases than can typify or shed light on the object of studyPurpose rather than statistical probability of selectionPurposive strategiesPurposive strategies are linked to the purpose of the study
43PracticalsSelect a sample from among the participants/community and conduct a FGDs/kii/observation research