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Integrating Qualitative Research into Quantitative Research

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1 Integrating Qualitative Research into Quantitative Research
Module 3 Sessions 10&11

2 Introduction Synopsis: This session will entail a discussion on why and how to integrate qualitative research into quantitative research Learning Objectives: At the end of this session participants should have developed an understanding of why and how to integrate qualitative research with quantitative research work. They should also appreciate the need for integrating qualitative into quantitative research approaches

3 Content Selecting a sample and collecting data using Focus Group Discussions, Key Informant Interviews and Observation. Output: participants will collect qualitative data using any of the qualitative methods

4 Activities Activity 1: Introduce qualitative research to the participants min Activity 2: Help the participants appreciate the complimentary role of qualitative methods 30min Activity 3:Explain the different qualitative methods min Activity 4: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods above min Activity 5: Practicals / Presentations within the participants min

5 Why Integrate qualitative and quantitative methods
Basing on the strengths and weaknesses/advantages and disadvantages of quantitative methods used For example: Results from the quantitative research can be generalized while those of qualitative may not Quantitative research may answer: when, what, who, how but not why; which can be answered by qualitative research

6 Cont’d It is not for the sake of integrating the two methods; but some better results must be realized Qualitative research is effective in identifying intangible factors such as social norms, gender roles, whose role in research may not be readily apparent

7 Cont’d Qualitative research emphasizes quality than quantity, depth more than breadth, insights rather than generalization When used along with quantitative data, it helps interpret and better understand the complex reality of a given situation and the implications of quantitative data

8 How to integrate the two methods:
Therefore, identify the strengths/weaknesses of the primary method Then identify a secondary method which can fill in the gaps

9 What is Qualitative Research?
This is a type of scientific Research which collects, analyzes and interprets data that cannot easily be reduced to numbers This type of data relates to the social world and the concepts and behaviors of people within it Qualitative research seeks to understand a given research problem or topic from the perspective/view point of the population under the study

10 Cont’d It seeks to promote greater understanding not only of the way things are, but also of why they are the way they are It is works best in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of a particular population The purpose of qualitative research is to produce rich data from a sample chosen for its ability to speak to the issue

11 Cont’d Qualitative research emphasizes quality than quantity, depth more than breadth, insights rather than generalization When used along with quantitative data, it helps interpret and better understand the complex reality of a given situation and the implications of quantitative data

12 Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Asks why, how, and under what circumstances things occur Seeks Depth of Understanding Views Social phenomena holistically Explores and discovers Provides insight into the meanings of decisions and actions Uses interpretive and other open-ended methods

13 Cont’d Is iterative rather than fixed
Its is emergent rather than pre structured Involves respondents as active participants rather than subjects Defines the investigator as an instrument in the research process

14 Qualitative research methods
These are several methods within this form of research of which are:- Focus group discussions Key Informant Interviews Observations

A group of 6-12 is assembled and engaged in an interaction to produce data and insights that would be less accessible without the interaction The group put together should be fairly homogenous: Social status, experience/user status, sex, age etc It useful in identifying normative issues, terms, perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, interpretation, from a group of individuals Moderator is needed to guide and lead the discussion in a focused manner

16 Cont’d Note taker, in charge of note taking and non verbal communication Tape recording is a requirement (ask for permission) Planned in advance, debriefing sessions Is useful especially with beneficiaries This is a type of Qualitative Research in which the researcher brings together small groups of people, 6–12 in number

17 Cont’d The Researcher plays the role of a modulator, and with an open instrument, the researcher engages the group in a discussion about the subject under investigation. The group is homogeneous in terms of the relevant variables for the study. It essentially relies on convenient sampling or Purposive sampling If not well moderated with in depth probing may not yield enough data

18 Cont’d Dominating characters should be controlled
Timid Characters encouraged to participate

19 These FGDs are basically used for
securing background information Getting feed back from project beneficiaries Interpreting available quantitative data Project monitoring and evaluation Assessing responses to recommend for innovations, policies etc

20 Advantages of using Focus Group Discussions
It enables rapid generation of information It reduces individual inhibitions and hindrances It helps respondents to raise issues and concerns that the investigation may not have considered They allow an interaction between the respondents and the investigator, creating a more in depth understanding of peoples’ understanding and lives.

21 Cont’d Its flexibility allows the researcher to use the responses to frame relevant and necessary questions.

22 Disadvantages of using Focus Group Discussions
Empirical generalisations cannot be from the data Liable to interviewer biases since these are no structural questions May lead to fear of giving personal sensitive information Despite the presence of the moderator, there are people who always dominate and those who cannot express themselves in-group discussions.

23 Note: The role of moderator:
to control those who may dominate the discussion to encourage those who may not feel free to talk to probe in case need arises

24 Key Informant Interviews
These are informal interviews directed to the knowledgeable people about the problem. These respondents may not necessarily be under the problem, but only with a sufficient knowledge These informants should be selected carefully to reflect diverse views and concerns. An interview guide with issues to be covered is used and it is carried out in an informal atmosphere.

25 Cont’d Probes to elicit more information are made

26 Selected Sample Any individual from which data can be secured
Experts/Individuals who hold special positions Have special/unique insights/experiences

27 It is most appropriate when:
A general descriptive information is sufficient for decision making It is necessary to know why a particular group of people behave the way they do More light/interpretation is needed on the available quantitative data. The primary purpose of the study is to generate suggestions and recommendations. There is a need for proper questionnaire design, hypothesis and propositions for further testing and refinement.

28 Advantages Since it is from knowledgeable persons, it reveals in-depth, inside information, to the extent of providing confidential information, which may not be the case in a formal setting It is cheap to conduct this kind of interview It reveals new ideas, relevant to the study, which may not have been anticipated, in the planning process. Easy to locate potential respondents willing to give the information.

29 Disadvantages The information cannot be generalised and therefore less reliable (ie incase it is biased).

30 Observations Observation is “a purposive or intentional examination of something, particularly for purposes of data gathering” (Chaplain 1968) It is a careful watching and noting phenomena as they occur in their natural setting Observation falls in two categories: Physical things like cars, buildings, chairs etc Social process eg social behaviour, culture, community relationships etc

31 Cont’d It is based on a checklist or a form with what to be observed
A detailed schedule with what to observe and how recordings are to be done is a requirement There are basically three forms of observation:

32 Non-Participant observation
May observe without participating e.g observing a session In this form of observation, there is careful watching and noting of events as they occur in their natural setting, without the Researcher’s participation. This form of observation has some problems: a) It is easy to identify the researcher since he is a stranger to the observed.

33 Cont’d Some salient aspects may not be observed by the researcher.

34 Observation with some participation:
This is where in addition to observation, the researcher takes part in some activities. The problems involved include:- The researcher may not observe some other aspects in which he does not take part. The researcher may also fail to get real meaning of the practices leading to misinterpreting the information due to his own perceptions.

35 Participant Observation:
Participant Observation brings the researcher into direct interaction with people and their activities Participation in the lives of the community, to observe the daily activities of people, to obtain an inside view of the situation Insider’s or outsider’s perspective Involvement may be limited due to race, sex and other physical factors

36 Cont’d In addition to observing the subjects, the researcher shares in the life and activities of those under investigation. This requires living in the community for a considerable period of time. This help to eliminate suspension and the subjects won’t continuously change behaviour. It also gives adequate time to study the events and practices under investigation and helps the observer to can understand and properly interpret the practices

37 This form of observation has some problems
Possibility of failing to play a dual role of a participant and an observer, one of the two may be compromised. Once the observer is identified, he may fail to observe each and every aspect of the practice

38 Advantages of observation
Able to see and observe what exactly takes place in its natural form without any distortion – first hand information Data collected is up to date and there is no memory failure Additional unexpected information may be got Can be used when studying those who can not express themselves eg children, the deaf etc It removes intentional lying eg about income Removes error due to translation

39 Disadvantages of observation
In case of any suspicion, the subjects have the potential to change their behaviour and act otherwise. There is time constraint, in that some activities take place once for a period of time, so the researcher has to wait until that activity is performed. Some events are exclusive to none members and in such cases it is impossible to do observation.

40 Cont’d In case of observer bias, the observer may select on the activities that are more interesting, and the results may not be complete Can not get information on the past or future events Without enough skills, the results may not be exhaustive and may not describe in totality the events in the field. There may be unfair and poor representative ness of things to observe. The observer may fail to select a representative sample of aspects to observe Can not get frequency of events

41 Sampling in qualitative Research
Looking at insights, depth rather than generalizations So Sampling is Purposive Selecting a Sample for the qualitative study is not haphazard but neither is it bound by rigid rules of reproducibility Sampling Techniques

42 Cont’d Qualitative design is to explore depth, the investigator carefully selects cases than can typify or shed light on the object of study Purpose rather than statistical probability of selection Purposive strategies Purposive strategies are linked to the purpose of the study

43 Practicals Select a sample from among the participants/community and conduct a FGDs/kii/observation research


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