2 Activity - Folding paper We are going to start with a quick game.Four volunteers stand up in front of the class (if the whole class wishes to participate that is fine too).Each one gets a pieces of blank paper.Volunteers must eyes close their eyes and keep them closed.And they are not allowed to ask questions.Once all volunteers are ready and their eyes are closed skip to the next slide.
3 InstructionsAsk volunteers to fold their paper in half and to tear off the bottom right hand corner.Tell them to fold the paper in half again and to tear off the upper right hand corner.Tell them to fold the paper again and tear off the lower left hand corner.This must all be done with closed eyes. The director should say the instructions slowly enough for them to follow but without responding to any questions they might ask.
4 Display and discussFinally ask them to open their eyes and show their unfolded paper to each other and the audience.Discussion:What words in the instructions could have been interpreted in different ways?How could direction have been clearer?
5 Learning objectivesCommunicate effectively in one-to-one and one-to-many discussionsNotice when communication is at risk of breaking down and help towards avoiding itProvide constructive feedback without being critical
6 CommunicationCommunication is the transfer and receipt of information from one person to another (or from one point to another).It is always between at least two people –sender and receiver – and the roles will change frequently.But the message must be understood for communication to be considered complete.
7 The Communication Process FeedbackSourceEncodingChannelDecodingReceiverMessageMessageMessageMessageUnderstanding occurs only in the mind of the receiver.They are responsible for completing the communication process.
8 Key Communication Elements The Method:VerbalNon-verbalWrittenElectronicThe Situation:DistanceSpeedAttitudeDifferent culturesThe Receiver:Could be known or unknownSender must imagine being the receiverNature of Content:Must be clear and understandableUnacceptable content should be avoided
9 Common hindrances to effective communication Personal:Attitude of both the sender and the receiverMisuse of body languagePre-judgementThe “I have heard it all before” syndromeEmotional ReactionsMental closureMis-communication (intentional or unintentional)These the ones most easily overcome. Communicators can influence them.
10 Common hindrances to effective communication Situational:Improper timingNoise and distractions in the environmentPressure of Time or other ResourcesUnfamiliar languageKnowledge LevelMore difficult to control.Careful forward planning and thoughtful consideration can help.
11 Common hindrances to effective communication Social:Differences between peopleRelationship between the sender and the receiverNecessary formalities can help.
12 Barriers that hinder effective communication Filtering – sender manipulates information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver.Selective Perception –receiver selectively sees and hears based on his/her needs, motivations, experiences, background and other personal characteristics.
13 Barriers that hinder effective communication Defensiveness – when individuals interpret another’s message as threatening, they often respond in ways that retard effective communicationLanguage – even within a language words can mean different things to different people.
14 Effective communication Need to look out for barriers and ways to overcome them.catch and put right early,if not can lead to one or more people feeling alienated and thus a failure to communicate.When using electronic methods of communication use careful, thoughtful planning.
15 Ten Considerations of Effective Communication Seek to clarify your ideas before communicatingExamine the true purpose of communicationConsider the total physical and human settingConsult with others in planning communicationBe mindful of the overtones as well as the basic content of your message
16 Ten Considerations of Effective Communication Take the opportunity to convey something of help or value to the receiverFollow-up your communicationBe sure your actions support your communicationSeek not only to be understood but to understand – be a good listener
17 Activity (practical)Now refer to the Practical sheet and complete Activity 2.This is a short role play exercise.Participants should be in groups of 2 or 3.
18 Introduction to inclusive language Language is important in shaping and portraying perceptions and attitudes, and is by no means neutral.Choosing certain words can exclude and devalue people.Choosing appropriate words allows us to treat each other with dignity, respect and sensitivity.……so.
19 Gender-neutral language Use gender-free terms in writing or talking about traditionally male or female activities.Let language usage reflect the fact that both men and women are involved in workplace, home, etc..ExampleDegender, don’t Re-gender( e.g., chairman to chair, not chairwomen).Avoid occupational designations having derogatory –ette and –ess endings
20 DisabilitiesUnless you’re writing is specifically focused on disabilities, avoid singling out one disabilities simply for the sake of identification.Avoid words that imply victimisation or create negative stereotypes (e.g., “victim” or “sufferer” for someone with a disease).Avoid words such as “poor,” “unfortunate” or “afflicted.”
21 PronounsAvoid the pronoun he when both sexes are included. Alternative approaches are:Recast the plural.Reword to eliminate the pronoun.Replace the masculine pronoun with one, you, or (sparingly) he or she as appropriate.Use a plural indefinite pronoun ( e.g. “All those who are on the course should bring their notes with them tomorrow.”)
22 Pronouns - examples NO “Give each student his exam paper.” “The average student is worried about his grades.”“If the student is unhappy with his grade, he can appeal it.”YES“Give students their exams papers.”“The average student is worried about grades.”“A student who is dissatisfied with his or her grade can appeal it.”
23 Activity (practical)Return to the Practical sheet and complete Activity 3.Rewrite the sentences incorporating what you have learned about inclusive language
24 Listening skillsHolds as much importance and responsibility as speaking and should be pursued actively.Good listening:Promotes good understanding of other’s pointsPromotes good understanding of how your own points are being perceivedWill help make you well understood in the groupWill promote good relationships
25 Active listening (6 points) Empathising and identifying with the speakerHelp you to understand their points better, faster, as a whole; gives you better grasp on entire issue.allow you to put your own points in a way which is attainable and poignant to the listener.Be responsiveMaintain a high level of eye contact.Use body language to show interest and openness.Show your understanding using paraphrasing and short utterances, be careful to encourage not interrupt.
26 Active listening (6 points) Listening and understanding points being madeListen openly to the other personMake sure you understand the point and the point of view before you form an opinionJudge the content, not the messenger or deliveryAsk the other person for as much detail as he/she can provide
27 Active listening (6 points) Listening between the linesPay attention to verbal and nonverbal cues about how the speaker feels about their pointsUnderstanding the speaker’s feelings will allow you to respond sensitively and avoid problems such as defensiveness.Pay attentionFight distractions, especially thinking ahead to what you are going to say back! Your retort may not be relevant.
28 Active listening (6 points) Testing for understanding (Feedback)Do not make assumptions –ask questions to verify your understanding.Use multiple techniques to fully comprehendAsk open friendly questions such as “If I have understood correctly you are saying that…?”Ask them to repeat themselves if necessaryAsk them to rephrase things if you feel you are misunderstanding
29 Speaking skills Don't totally control conversation acknowledge what has been said and incorporate it into your discourseAsk the other for other’s views or suggestionsState your position openlyBe specific, not global, make your point as your ownBe clear in what you are saying but not damning of other opinions
30 Speaking skillsBe validating, not invalidating ("You wouldn't understand")Acknowledge other’s uniqueness, importance.Don't react to emotional words, interpret their purposeImportant not to allow personal feelings to derail the focus of the discussion.Respond in a way that acknowledges the emotion but eliminates it from the topic.
31 Constructive Feedback Providing constructive feedback is a key part of training.Receiving it is key to the learning process.We now ideas on providing constructive feedback. give someWhen reading them think about two he principles of adult learning:Autonomous, participants make decisions for themselves; you are there to guide not tell them.Experience, particiapants’ past experience has provided them with a strong sense of self. They know more about themselves than you do.
32 Constructive Feedback It must not be focused on the personAvoid accusationsFocus on the behavior/message not the person.… and behavior which the receiver can do something about..It must be presented as your opinionLeaves individual free to use it or not to use itIt must not be evaluative - cause defensiveness.Be descriptive about the action, message and how you perceived it.
33 Constructive Feedback It must always be solution orientatedNever provide critical feedback for the sake of criticizingMust be for improvements sakeMust include possible solutions and alternatives - which must in turn be open to criticism.It must include praisePoints that impressed you as well as those that did not.By pointing these out you reinforce what you want from them by showing them which path to follow.
34 Constructive Feedback It must be well focused and clearBe as specific and detailed as possibleBe completely clear before you startMisunderstandings and generalisations during feedback can be damagingIt must be benefit the receiver (not the giver)Given to help, not to hurt. Feedback is not to make us feel better or give a psychological advantage.Must be an amount of information that the receiver can use. Overload will reduce the possibility that receiver can use what he receives effectively.
35 Constructive Feedback It must be appropriately timedFeedback presented at inappropriate time may do more harm than good.If time has past need to rethink whether you need to give the feedback. It is only to help the recipient and they may now have helped themselves.It must not be presumptuousIt concerns what is said and done, or how, not why.…Think of feedback as sharing of information rather than giving advice.
36 Constructive Feedback It is part of the communication process.it can not start until you fully understand the point you are providing feedback on.it is not finished until they understand what you are explaining to them.It does not finish with your inputs; your feedback must be open to further feedback.All the principles of communication covered earlier apply to feedback sessions too!.
37 Activity (practical)Return to the Practical sheet and complete Activity 4.This activity involves group work examining feedback forms and adapting them to be constructive.
38 Review of learning objectives Are you now able to:Notice when communication is in risk of breaking down and help towards avoiding it.Be emphatic, encouraging listeners.Understand the importance of good communication in providing feedback.Understand the importance of feedback in training.Provide constructive, well focused feedback.