Presentation on theme: "1 Project Implementation and management Module 5 Session 7."— Presentation transcript:
1 Project Implementation and management Module 5 Session 7
2 Summary This session covers the aspects of project implementation and management from activation onwards, including factors that affect project implementation. Project management as a concept is considered. The characteristic of a good project manager are discussed.
3 Contents Introduction to Project Implementation Project Activation Project Operation Approaches to Project Implementation Project Implementation Plan Factors Affecting Project Implementation Project Management Defined Aspects of Project Management Characteristics of a good Project Manager
4 Project Implementation Process whereby project inputs are converted to project outputs. May be looked at as: Putting in action the activities of the project. Putting into practice what was proposed in the project document (i.e. transforming the project proposal into the actual project.) Management of the project or executing the project intentions.
5 Project Implementation (cont.) Implementation usually done by implementing agency (organization) that prepared the project and received funding for it. Other organizations that participate in the implementation of the project by way of collaboration, say by according good working relationship, extending technical advice or seconding their staff to the project are referred to as co-operating agencies.
6 Project Implementation phase involves: Project activation, and Project operation Project activation This means making arrangements to have the project started. It involves coordination and allocation of resources to make project operational. Project operation This is practical management of a project. Here, project inputs are transformed into outputs to achieve immediate objectives.
7 Project operation and maintenance Operation and maintenance To attain value and maximum returns, the district/municipality or the beneficiaries organize for the facility to have the project properly managed and maintained regularly. An operation and maintenance manual is prepared by the contractor and handed to the district / beneficiaries.
8 Approaches to project implementation Top-down approach Implementation mainly done by agencies from outside the community with limited involvement by the beneficiaries. Bottom-up approach Beneficiaries implement the project. Outside agencies may provide the financial resources and technical assistance. Collaborative participatory approach Both top-down and bottom-up approaches to project implementation are applied in the process.
9 Project implementation plan (PIP) If PIP not carried out during the project design process and embodied in the project documents, it is carried out at the project activation stage.
10 Project implementation plan includes: a) The project implementation schedule This is concerned with: What activities can produce expected project outputs? What is the sequence of these activities? What is the time frame for these activities? Who will be responsible for carrying out each activity?
11 Project implementation plan includes: The following methods may be used to answer the above questions: Gantt chart Critical Path Method (CPM) or Net work analysis Project Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) Simple formats
12 What is a GANTT Chart? The Gantt chart is also referred to as the progress chart. It is a chart showing the timing of project activities using horizontal bars. It is one of the techniques of project scheduling, which depicts the frequency of activities and determines the period of time for implementation.
13 How to determine a GANTT chart Determine the parts or implementation phases of the project and the sequence in which the associated activities shall be carried out Then estimate the amount of time required for each activity List the activities that can be carried out at the same time and identify those to be carried out sequentially
14 How to construct a GANTT chart Time represented on the horizontal axis, and activities on the vertical axis. Bars are entered to indicate the time period allocated for each activity and the state of progress at any particular point in time.
15 Example: Maize farming project Activity Marketing Threshing Harvesting Weeding Planting Preparing seedbed J F M A M J J A S O N D Time period/ months
16 The Simple Format
17 Practical Develop a Gantt chart Simple Format project implementation schedules in relation to the identified projects in the project identification session.
18 Project implementation plan (cont.) b) The role of the implementing agency The specific responsibilities of the key staff during project implementation and monitoring are outlined. c) Beneficiary participation The involvement of the beneficiaries in planning and implementation and what is expected of them is spelt out.
19 Project implementation plan (cont.) d) Organizational structure and staffing Here the following are sought: Project structure for purposes of management Qualifications and skills for the staff Job descriptions and specifications for the staff Technical assistance if needed e) Financial management This looks at funds management, accounting period, financial reports and statements and how often they will be made?
20 Project implementation plan (cont.) f) Reporting system This looks at who will be reporting to whom and how often. There is need to design standard reporting formats. g) Sustainability The concept of sustainability is based on belief that project should result in benefits that have lasting effect. Project should be sustained beyond the life of funding - especially if it is a grant. Project should not exhaust the available resources like raw materials and labor.
21 Project implementation plan (cont.) Time control and remedial action Time taken to implement project activities is one measure of successfulness of supervision or monitoring of project implementation. Supervisor pays particular attention to time control measures, time scheduling and its supervision, time extension and postponement, damages for non-completion and defect or warranty period.
22 Project implementation plan (cont.) Supervision of implementation of project schedule This involves a set of checks and balances to ensure that the schedule is being adhered to. To ensure that the time schedule is being adhered to, the project activity time listing can be of great importance.
23 Project Activity Time Listing
24 Practical Using the Project Activity Time Listing, develop a Project Activity Time Listing table in relation to the Identified project in project identification session, and fill it in.
25 Factors affecting project implementation Factors that lead to success of projects Political Commitment Simplicity of Design Careful preparation Good management Involvement of beneficiaries/community Factors and problems that lead to failure of projects Financial Problems Management problems Technical problems Political problems
26 Factors affecting project implementation Other typical implementation problems Poor scheduling of projects leading to delays in Poor scheduling of projects leading to delays in implementation. Misallocation of funds Delay and sometimes lack of counterpart funding Lack of accountability and transparency Bureaucracy in decision-making. Selfishness/nepotism/favoritism by some project managers.
27 Factors affecting project implementation Other typical implementation problems (cont.) Weak monitoring systems Natural calamities like drought, earthquakes, landslides, and hailstorms. Policy changes Migration of beneficiaries Lack of team work Lack of incentives for implementers. etc
28 Project management Management may be defined as; Getting things done from the available resources, the way you want them to be done. Project management defined Project Management is an all-embracing term covering the management of every detail of a project (Project cycle) and may be defined as, the process of planning and directing a project from its inception to its final completion.
29 Project management (cont.) Project management decisions - a necessary function for setting up a project. It is concerned with: Forecasting Setting objectives Policy making Planning - determines success/failure of project. It has three (3) main aspects: Programming Scheduling and Budgeting
30 Project management (cont.) Project control - To control is to compare actual with planned achievements and take action to correct any adverse deviations. It involves: Plans of Operation These are the result of the planning process of Project management. Review and Updating Review is necessary to determine whether the project is proceeding according to plan or not. Updating is recording the state of the project as shown by the reviews, or of making amendments.
31 Project management (cont.) Project Action - When review has shown a project to be deviating from plan, action is required to restore the operation to its planned characteristics.
32 A good project manager should: have working knowledge in several fields be able to understand general managerial problems have active interest in training and developing subordinates be able to delegate some tasks to subordinates Characteristics of a good project manager
33 A good project manager should: know the project and understand its objectives know the systematic process for managing projects be able to answer the following questions: What is the project for? Why is it required? Whom does it serve? How is it justified? How is it going to be used? Characteristics of a good project manager (cont.)