Presentation on theme: "Project Implementation and management"— Presentation transcript:
1Project Implementation and management Module 5 Session 7
2SummaryThis session covers the aspects of project implementation and management from activation onwards, including factors that affect project implementation.Project management as a concept is considered.The characteristic of a good project manager are discussed.
3Contents Introduction to Project Implementation Project Activation Project OperationApproaches to Project ImplementationProject Implementation PlanFactors Affecting Project ImplementationProject Management DefinedAspects of Project ManagementCharacteristics of a good Project Manager
4Project Implementation Process whereby “project inputs are converted to project outputs”. May be looked at as:Putting in action the activities of the project.Putting into practice what was proposed in the project document (i.e. transforming the project proposal into the actual project.)Management of the project or executing the project intentions.
5Project Implementation (cont.) Implementation usually done by implementing agency (organization) that prepared the project and received funding for it.Other organizations that participate in the implementation of the projectby way of collaboration, say by according good working relationship, extending technical advice or seconding their staff to the projectare referred to as co-operating agencies.
6Project Implementation phase involves: Project activation, andProject operationProject activationThis means making arrangements to have the project started. It involves coordination and allocation of resources to make project operational.This is practical management of a project. Here, project inputs are transformed into outputs to achieve immediate objectives.
7Project operation and maintenance To attain value and maximum returns, the district/municipality or the beneficiaries organize for the facility to have the project properly managed and maintained regularly.An operation and maintenance manual is prepared by the contractor and handed to the district / beneficiaries.
8Approaches to project implementation Top-down approachImplementation mainly done by agencies from outside the community with limited involvement by the beneficiaries.Bottom-up approachBeneficiaries implement the project. Outside agencies may provide the financial resources and technical assistance.Collaborative participatory approachBoth top-down and bottom-up approaches to project implementation are applied in the process.
9Project implementation plan (PIP) If PIP not carried out during the project design process and embodied in the project documents, it is carried out at the project activation stage.
10Project implementation plan includes: a) The project implementation scheduleThis is concerned with:What activities can produce expected project outputs?What is the sequence of these activities?What is the time frame for these activities?Who will be responsible for carrying out each activity?
11Project implementation plan includes: The following methods may be used to answer the above questions:Gantt chartCritical Path Method (CPM) or Net work analysisProject Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)Simple formats
1228/03/2017What is a GANTT Chart?The Gantt chart is also referred to as the progress chart.It is a chart showing the timing of project activities using horizontal bars.It is one of the techniques of project scheduling, which depicts the frequency of activities and determines the period of time for implementation.
13How to determine a GANTT chart 28/03/2017How to determine a GANTT chartDetermine the parts or implementation phases of the project and the sequence in which the associated activities shall be carried outThen estimate the amount of time required for each activityList the activities that can be carried out at the same time and identify those to be carried out sequentially
14How to construct a GANTT chart 28/03/2017How to construct a GANTT chartTime represented on the horizontal axis, and activities on the vertical axis.Bars are entered to indicate the time period allocated for each activity and the state of progress at any particular point in time.
15Example: Maize farming project 28/03/2017Example: Maize farming projectActivityMarketingThreshingHarvestingWeedingPlantingPreparing seedbedJ F M A M J J A S O N DTime period/ months
17Practical Develop a Gantt chart Simple Format project implementation schedules in relation to the identified projects in the project identification session.
18Project implementation plan (cont.) b) The role of the implementing agencyThe specific responsibilities of the key staff during project implementation and monitoring are outlined.c) Beneficiary participationThe involvement of the beneficiaries in planning and implementation and what is expected of them is spelt out.
19Project implementation plan (cont.) d) Organizational structure and staffingHere the following are sought:Project structure for purposes of managementQualifications and skills for the staffJob descriptions and specifications for the staffTechnical assistance if needede) Financial managementThis looks at funds management, accounting period, financial reports and statements and how often they will be made?
20Project implementation plan (cont.) f) Reporting systemThis looks at who will be reporting to whom and how often. There is need to design standard reporting formats.g) SustainabilityThe concept of sustainability is based on belief that project should result in benefits that have lasting effect. Project should be sustained beyond the life of funding - especially if it is a grant.Project should not exhaust the available resources like raw materials and labor.
21Project implementation plan (cont.) Time control and remedial actionTime taken to implement project activities is one measure of successfulness of supervision or monitoring of project implementation.Supervisor pays particular attention to time control measures, time scheduling and its supervision, time extension and postponement, damages for non-completion and defect or warranty period.
22Project implementation plan (cont.) Supervision of implementation of project scheduleThis involves a set of checks and balances to ensure that the schedule is being adhered to.To ensure that the time schedule is being adhered to, the project activity time listing can be of great importance.
23Project Activity Time Listing 28/03/2017Project Activity Time Listing
24PracticalUsing the Project Activity Time Listing, develop a Project Activity Time Listing table in relation to the Identified project in project identification session, and fill it in.
25Factors affecting project implementation Factors that lead to success of projectsPolitical CommitmentSimplicity of DesignCareful preparationGood managementInvolvement of beneficiaries/communityFactors and problems that lead to failure of projectsFinancial ProblemsManagement problemsTechnical problemsPolitical problems
26Factors affecting project implementation Other typical implementation problemsPoor scheduling of projects leading to delays inPoor scheduling of projects leading to delays in implementation.Misallocation of fundsDelay and sometimes lack of counterpart fundingLack of accountability and transparencyBureaucracy in decision-making.Selfishness/nepotism/favoritism by some project managers.
27Factors affecting project implementation Other typical implementation problems (cont.)Weak monitoring systemsNatural calamities like drought, earthquakes, landslides, and hailstorms.Policy changesMigration of beneficiariesLack of team workLack of incentives for implementers.etc
28Project management Management may be defined as; Getting things done from the available resources, the way you want them to be done.Project management definedProject Management is an all-embracing term covering the management of every detail of a project (Project cycle) and may be defined as, “the process of planning and directing a project from its inception to its final completion”.
29Project management (cont.) Project management decisions - a necessary function for setting up a project. It is concerned with:ForecastingSetting objectivesPolicy makingPlanning - determines success/failure of project. It has three (3) main aspects:ProgrammingScheduling andBudgeting
30Project management (cont.) Project control - To control is to compare actual with planned achievements and take action to correct any adverse deviations. It involves:Plans of OperationThese are the result of the planning process of Project management.Review and UpdatingReview is necessary to determine whether the project is proceeding according to plan or not. Updating is recording the state of the project as shown by the reviews, or of making amendments.
31Project management (cont.) Project Action - When review has shown a project to be deviating from plan, action is required to restore the operation to its planned characteristics.
32Characteristics of a good project manager 28/03/2017Characteristics of a good project managerA good project manager should:have working knowledge in several fieldsbe able to understand general managerial problemshave active interest in training and developing subordinatesbe able to delegate some tasks to subordinates
33Characteristics of a good project manager (cont.) 28/03/2017Characteristics of a good project manager (cont.)A good project manager should:know the project and understand its objectivesknow the systematic process for managing projectsbe able to answer the following questions:What is the project for?Why is it required?Whom does it serve?How is it justified?How is it going to be used?