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p1 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2! Dr Richard Mitchell Department of Cybernetics School of Systems Engineering The University of Reading
p2 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Introduction Robotics are taking over our daily lives The wide range of applications is increasing from sorting mail to stroke patients rehabilitation They require advanced autonomy (local intelligence) even for robots near at hand but especially for remote robots (eg Mars Rover) This lecture shows how Robotics fits into Cybernetics Why intelligence is needed in robotic control And describes work done with simple intelligent robots from our Seven Dwarves to R2D2.
p3 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Cybernetics - a Different Perspective Fundamental principles, such as feedback, applicable to a great variety of diverse systems, technological, environmental, and/or biological
p4 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Feedback for Control of Boat Also for control of car direction, car speed, etc.
p5 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Feedback for Robot Arm In fact, need such feedback control for each joint
p6 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Intelligent Control In principle feedback can be used to control devices But, it is not a trivial problem in reality (there is a 3 year degree Cybernetics & Control Engineering which covers control in detail!) If remote control, then control is difficult because of the delay in the feedback loop ( ever tried controlling shower at tap … ) Thus for more sophisticated devices it is better if a) there is local control b) there is intelligent control – able to adapt
p7 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 This Requires Learning And Learning is a feedback process
p8 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Artificial Stupidity Learning and Artificial Intelligence have been researched for over 50 years Non trivial problem, not properly solved Often problems attempted are too difficult We decided to start with simpler problems Borrow from nature – what are simple + successful ? Answer – insects – devices with built in instincts – able to do simple tasks Decided to make robotic insects – able to learn
p9 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Basic Robot Can perceive environment – ultrasonic sensors Explore environment – control each motor
p10 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Seven Dwarves and Learning Seven Built – named Happy, Grumpy etc. Pre-programmed for tasks like explore and not bump into objects Robot provided with rules like: if object on left, right motor back, left motor forward Or students set problem solve task –write the rules But Kevin Warwick wanted the robots to learn Team of me, Dave Keating, Chandra K., and Ians Needed a learning strategy – chose trial and error - also used by young babies …
p11 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Learning Strategy 9 possible Actions : each motor Forward / Off / Back Each Action has Probability of being chosen Do Robot chooses Action – most Probable is most likely to be chosen, and Action carried out Success of Action Evaluated – as instinct In open, good to move forward (explore) Else, good to move away from object If good, increase Probability of Action Otherwise, decrease Probability
p12 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Multiple Automata Such a set of actions / probabilities – an Automaton BUT, different actions appropriate under different circumstances So have five different Automata one for open, one for object very close on left, one for object only near on left, etc Robot thus chooses appropriate Automaton Then chooses Action based on Probability, etc.
p13 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 And More Method applied successfully Extra sensors have been added Robots allowed to communicate with other robots – shared learning with computers had one robot teaching another in US over WWW Have also built Six legged robots (more insect like) these have learnt gait for moving Students build robots in Part 2 and Part 3 Projects
p14 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Real Robots Given robots success, others wanted to have / build them. So collaborated with Eaglemoss publishers – magazine with robot parts …
p15 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 R2-D2 Toy Designed by ex-Cybernetics lecturer, Dave Keating. Arose from research here Feedback control of motors for body/head movement Change loop gain for different behaviour Can follow human If move towards it fast, R2 backs off, etc.
p16 RJM 14/06/04Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004 Summary Robots are examples of cybernetic systems More sophisticated robots need to be able to learn : learning being a cybernetic process We have used robots as test beds for learning And have had much fun with them There are numerous applications of robots Some more you will be able to see as part of what we are showing in the Department of Cybernetics - part of the School of Systems Engineering.
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