Presentation on theme: "Lecture Structure 1). What was the church? Images and ideas Organisation and Personnel Functions 2). Challenges facing the (late) medieval church : heresy."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture Structure 1). What was the church? Images and ideas Organisation and Personnel Functions 2). Challenges facing the (late) medieval church : heresy and discontent
Church militant and triumphant The church triumphant (Ecclesia Triumphans), comprising those who are in heaven The church militant (Ecclesia Militans), comprising those believers who are living The church suffering or Church Penitent (Ecclesia Penitens) or expectant (Ecclesia Expectans), comprising the souls in purgatory
The three are fundamentally linked through prayer: the saints in heaven intercede for those on earth the faithful living pray for the souls of the dead the suffering souls in purgatory find their suffering diminished through the labours of the faithful
Other ideas about the church The church as institution and the church visible The church as the community of believers, and the church invisible Where do the roots of true faith lie? In continuity in the visible church as the repository of the faith, or in the continuity of belief among Christians?
Organisation and Personnel The Pope (Bishop of Rome) as the successor of St Peter. Cardinals – the college of cardinals comes to elect the pope Archbishops Bishops Priests
The Pope From Latin "papa" or "father" from Greek πάπας, pápas, "papa Current pope is (conventionally) the 265 th successor to St Peter Roman primary clear in second century: St Irenaeus writes With [the Church of Rome], because of its superior origin, all the churches must agree... and it is in her that the faithful everywhere have maintained the apostolic tradition.
Cardinals Responsible for the election of the pope (at least since 1059) Usually also a bishop in the church Will be among the closest advisers to the pope Responsible for the administration of the church sede vacante
Bishops and Archbishops responsible for teaching the Catholic faith and for the administration of the Church Area of authority = diocese, or archdiocese / metropolitan see Only a bishop can confer holy orders – i.e. ordain a priest The word episkopoi (bishop) occurs five times in the New Testament, although its meaning is disputed
Priest The office of the priest, or the priesthood of all believers? Ordained by the bishop Responsible for preaching and for the celebration of the sacraments Based in a parish church.
What does the Church offer? The only route to salvation (life after death) via the sacraments Education Definition and Structure of Time Adminstration of canon law Administration of land (major landowner) Social functions in the community
The geography of the afterlife Heaven Hell Purgatory Limbo(s)
Dies Irae (13 th century) Dies iræ! dies illa Solvet sæclum in favilla Teste David cum Sibylla! Day of wrath! O day of mourning! See fulfilled the prophets' warning, Heaven and earth in ashes burning!
Securing the fate of the soul The sacraments of the church Faith and good works Prayer and the prayer of others Indulgences
Seven deadly sins Pope Gregory the Great Pride Envy Anger Avarice Sadness (later sloth) Gluttony Lust
The deadly sins (Chaldon, Surrey, 12 th century)
Seven corporal works of mercy Give food to the hungry Give drink to the thirsty Welcome the stranger Clothe the naked Visit the sick Visit the prisoner Bury the dead
The sacraments Baptism The eucharist / Mass Confirmation Marriage Holy orders Reconciliation / confession / penance Extreme unction / last rites
Liturgical celebration Latin Observation and participation Praying alongside the priest Feast days, holy days, festivals Sacred function and social function – for example processions at Rogationtide
Books of Hours Private devotion Texts, prayers and psalms Calendar of the feasts of the church Latin (English = primers) Based on breviary, monastic prayers Lay piety mirrors monastic life
The shrine of St Frideswide (8 th century abbess)
Criticism of the church Theological Opposition to devotional practice Political Economic anticlericalism
Cathars Southern France 11 th century onwards Condemned 1179 Rooted in the heresies of the past? Theological challenge? Sacraments (consolamentum) Rival structures Credentes and perfecti
Suppression Begins in earnest late 11 th century Lateran III (1179) Political? Popes and princes Key players: Innocent III; Philip II; Raymond of Toulouse; Simon de Montfort Albigensian Crusade 1208 Peace of Paris 1229
Challenges for the Historian Rhetoric and reality? Lack of sources for early Catharism Narrative dominated by key incidents (Beziers) Theological, political, territorial and popular narrative
Narrative of events Suppression begins 1179 1184 Pope enlists the help of emperor Innocent III (1198-1215) holds the power of the popes in esteem; legalistic Tensions build early 13 th century
Political factors Geography: the bulk of the attention in South of France Raymond Count of Toulouse (1194-1212) sees himself as virtually independent Wealthy but not popular; hard to command loyalty Clash of local autonomy ands traditions and the demands of the pope
Emerging crisis 1199: legates sent to Languedoc 1204 Arnold Amalric of Citeaux sent 1206: St Dominic 1207: pope calls on the king to act (but he is busy fighting the English) 1208: assassination of Peter of Castelnau Raymond protects the murderer: excommunicated
Crusade Material and eternal reward Raymond tried to use crusade to gain control of territory Amalric views him as a heretic Raymond reconciled with the church 1209
Phase One 1209-11 Army gathers July 1209 Massacre of heretics at Bezier (first target) Amalric kill them all. God will know his own Carcassone falls to crusaders Simon de Montfort acquires land
Phase Two 1211-13 Papal legates try to limit Raymonds involvement Further victories for Simon The defeated towns turn to Raymond as the army leaves Raymond still isolated in Toulouse. Toulousain territory falls to Simon
Phase Three 1213 Aragonese involvement: Peter Peter is already suzerain in parts of Southern France Presence of Simon is a threat to Peter Alliance between Peter and Raymond 1213 Peter killed at Battle of Muret
Phase Four: 1213-15 Simon destroys all towns that he cannot garrison Appeals to French king for help 1215 Louis VIII makes crusading vow Louis attacks Narbonne and Toulouse then leaves 1215 (December) Raymond deprived of all land; handed to Simon
Phase Five 1215-1225 Counter attack by South Raymond defeats Simon at Beaucaire Other towns fall to Raymond – Toulouse 1217 Simon killed in Battle 1218 Midi falls without his leadership Raymond died 1222; his son takes over campaign 1225 Raymond (VII) excommunicated and deprived of land
Phase Six 1225-1229 Honorius II calls crusade Louis VIII leads army and conquers Provence, Avignon, and much of Languedoc and Query Louis died 1226 Southern France exhausted by war
Reconciliation Peace of Paris 1229 Raymond VII swears loyalty to Louis IX (12 year old boy) Lands returned to Raymond, but with conditions and penalties First time that the area has been controlled by king Persecution ends. Last perfecti executed 1321 (Guillaume Belibaste)
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