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15 lines representing a bull Traditional statistics Assumes data is independent Comparative methods.

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Presentation on theme: "15 lines representing a bull Traditional statistics Assumes data is independent Comparative methods."— Presentation transcript:

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3 15 lines representing a bull

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5 Traditional statistics Assumes data is independent Comparative methods

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8 English Fish Danish Fisk Dutch Visch Fish Ryba Czech Ryba Russian Ryba Bulgarian Riba 23 other languages 34other languages

9 13517 Average 17 1 Who, Three 35 Person, Dirty

10 Englishheresea(A)(A)waterwhen Germanhiersee, meer(A,B)(A,B)wasserwenn Frenchicimer(B)(B)eauquand Italianqui, quamare(B)(B)acquaquando Greekedothalasa(C)(C)neropote Hittitekaaruna-(D)watarkuwapi Languages Meanings sea (A)meer (B)thalasa (C)aruna- (D) English1000 German1100 French0100 Italian0100 Greek0010 Hittite0001

11 Q 01 0 Non cognate 1 Cognate Q Time 1000 years

12 Results = Data + Method

13 Most probable Random tree Log units 4.1 x Infinite number of poor trees

14 Out group Greek Indo-Iranian Slavic Germanic Celtic Romance

15 Name, 3 cognate classes Class A, Gypsy (Alav), Persian (Esm) Class B, Latvian (Vards), Lithuanian (Vardas) Class C, All the rest, Hindi (Nam), Greek (Onoma), Italian (Nome) Class A Class BClass C B A A B C A A C B C C B B A, C B, ect The estimated instantiations transition rate To many parameters, not enough data

16 2 cognate classes Slow rateFast rate Class 1 Class 2

17 Red Salt Five

18 Mean = Median = 2.74 Min. = 0.09 Max = fold difference Mean rates for the 200 words Slow two, who, one, night, to die Fast dirty, to turn, to stab,

19 Word Half life 50% chance of the word being replaced by a non-cognate form Years Mean5260 Median2530 Min750 Max76530 Based on IE being 8000 years

20 I-E tree showing variation in rates of lexical replacement, per 10k years One 0.43Ear 0.88Sand 4.5 ROMANCE GERMANIC GREEK GERMANIC SLAVIC INDO- IRANIAN

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23 Spoken word frequency British National Corpus N = 4840 words mean = 194 geometric mean = median = 25

24 Distribution of frequency of word use ( million words) Most words used < 100 times per million

25 r=0.87 r=0.88 r=0.87 Frequent of use is very stable thru out IE

26 Frequency vs rate of lexical evolution r=-0.37 r=-0.35 r=-0.41 r=-0.32

27 Parts of speech conjunctions ---- prepositions ---- adjectives ---- verbs ---- nouns ---- special adverbs---- pronouns ---- numbers ---- R 2 =0.50 R 2 =0.48 Numbers, pronouns, special adverbs Stronger selection?

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30 Some similarities between linguistic and genetic systems


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