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Civil Society Organisations and Policy Entrepreneurship Naved Chowdhury Overseas Development Institute, London.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil Society Organisations and Policy Entrepreneurship Naved Chowdhury Overseas Development Institute, London."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil Society Organisations and Policy Entrepreneurship Naved Chowdhury Overseas Development Institute, London

2 Workshop Objectives a)Share experiences about CSO-policy context in African CEF partners; b)Learn about the latest worldwide research and practice in this area; c)Share experiences about approaches to influence policy and what works; d)Start to develop strategies to improve policy impact.

3 Outline of the Workshop Day 1 General Introductions Day 2 Tools and field trip Day3 Develop a strategy Knowledge management

4 Any questions about the plan?

5 Self Introductions 2 minutes! Name Organization / Area of Work What do you want to get out of this workshop?

6 Plenary discussion: 1.What are the main opportunities and challenges a) Regarding CSO-policy links? (in general) b) Affecting the policy impact of your work?

7 CSOs, Evidence and Policy Processes Next steps: Definitions Theory Reality (Then well discuss what issues matter)

8 Overseas Development Institute Britains leading development Think Tank £12m, 120 researchers Research / Advice / Public Debate Rural / Humanitarian / Poverty & Aid / Economics (HIV, Human rights, Water) DFID, Parliament, WB, EC Civil Society For more information see:

9 RAPID Programme Research Advisory work Policy change projects Workshops and seminars Civil Society Programme

10 Policy Process Workshops Looking at internal policy processes – what works in DFID. Small, informal workshop with 7 staff. Participatory pair-wise ranking of factors influencing the success of 8 policy processes. Worked quite well. In DFID - agendas and processes rather than documents are key

11 How were doing it in RAPID Clear Aim & Outputs Building credibility with research/action Employing the right staff & staff development Good internal systems (Mgt, Comms & KM) Programme approach: –Strategic opportunism –Research / practical advice / stimulating debate –Engagement with policy makers & practitioners –Community of practice cf network Financial opportunism

12 How we advise: SMEPOL Egypt Policy Process Mapping RAPID Framework Stakeholder Analysis Force-Field Analysis SWOT Action Planning Evaluation & Adapting

13 CSOs and Pro-poor Policy Influence Complementing state in providing services Innovators in service delivery Advocates with and for the poor Identifying problems & solutions Extending our understanding Providing information Training and capacity building

14 The Opportunity The results of household disease surveys informed processes of health service reform which contributed to a 43 and 46 per cent reduction in infant mortality between 2000 and 2003 in two districts in rural Tanzania. –TEHIP Project

15 HIV Prevalence in Thailand, Uganda & KwaZulu-Natal: Source: UNAIDS

16 When it Works: Attitudes to HIV on the education sector it is evident that the project has institutionalised a new attitude towards HIV/AIDS education in primary schools …. Teachers' and pupils' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours have also changed. Primary School Action for Better Health Project in Kenya (PSABH)

17 When it works best: Aid and Debt all the contributors emphasise the importance of researchers forming alliances with civil society. - Court and Maxwell, JID Special Issue

18 Context Democratization and liberalization. In some countries, move from challenging state to policy engagement. CSOs increasingly involved in policy processes (from focus on service delivery). CSO accountability and legitimacy of CSO involvement is questioned. Challenge of engaging in a way that does justice to the evidence. Southern research capacity has been denuded. CSOs, researchers and policymakers seem to live in parallel universes.

19 Definitions Research: any systematic effort to increase the stock of knowledge Evidence: the result/output of the research process Policy: a purposive course of action followed by an actor or set of actors –Agendas / policy horizons –Official statements documents –Patterns of spending –Implementation processes –Activities on the ground

20 Evaluate the results The linear logical policy model… Identify the problem Commission research Analyse the results Choose the best option Establish the policy Implement the policy

21 Generic Policy Processes

22 in reality… The whole life of policy is a chaos of purposes and accidents. It is not at all a matter of the rational implementation of the so-called decisions through selected strategies. 1 Most policy research on African agriculture is irrelevant to agricultural and overall economic policy in Africa. 2 CSOs often have very little to bring to the policy table. 3 CSOs, researchers and policymakers seem to live in parallel universes. 4 1 – Clay & Schaffer (1984) 2 – Omamo (2003) 3 – CSPP Consultations 4 – ODI-AFREPREN Workshop

23 Agenda setting Problem definition & analysis Policy tools Selection ImplementationEnforcement Policy evaluation Public Scientists Industry CSOs Media Government Source: Yael Parag

24 CSOs and Policy: Existing theory 1.Linear model 2.Too close for comfort, Edwards 3.Impact & Effectiveness, Fowler 4.Context, evidence, links, RAPID 5.Policy narratives, Roe 6.CSO legitimacy, L. David Brown 7.Links and Learning, Gaventa 8.Room for manoeuvre, Clay & Schaffer 9.Street level bureaucrats, Lipsky 10.Policy as experiments, Rondinelli 11.Policy Streams & Windows, Kingdon 12.Disjointed incrementalism, Lindquist 13.Tipping point model, Gladwell 14.Mercenaries, missionaries and revolutionaries, Malena 15.Non-Western?, Lewis 16.Global Civil Society, Salamon, Kaldor 17.Types of Engagement, Coston 18.Linear model of communication, Shannon 19.Space for thought & action, Howell 20.Simple and surprising stories, Communication Theory 21.Provide solutions, Marketing Theory I 22.Find the right packaging, Marketing II 23.Global Civil Society?, Keane 24.Global Legitimacy, van Rooy 25.Epistemic communities, Haas 26.Policy entrepreneurs, Najam 27.Advocacy coalitions, Keck & Sikkink 28.Negotiation through networks, Sabattier 29.Social capital, Coleman 30.Accountability, OneWorld Trust 31.Communication for social change, Rockefeller Foundation 32.Wheels and webs, Chapman & Fisher X

25 Existing theory – a short list Civil Society, Edwards Types of Engagment, Coston Legitimacy, L. David Brown / van Rooy Street level bureaucrats, Lipsky Global Civil Society, Keane / Kaldor / Salamon Policy streams and policy windows, Kingdon Disjointed Incrementalism, Lindblom Social Epidemics, Gladwell CSOs & Policy Processes

26 A word of warning… The world is complex We do not aim to make it simple Only to find recognisable patternrs or beacons Which might guide your actions There is NO blueprint. NO linear, logical, rational, proper, method. Most of the time it is up to you.

27 … A word of warning You will probably never find out what goes on within the policy process And not have all the evidence you need You need to be confident to act even in a context of uncertainty And be systematic and scientific (context, strategy, action, record, learn) but flexible and original

28 Policy life is complex. What issues matter? The RAPID Framework

29 The Analytical Framework The political context – political and economic structures and processes, culture, institutional pressures, incremental vs radical change etc. The evidence – credibility, the degree it challenges received wisdom, research approaches and methodology, simplicity of the message, how it is packaged etc External Influences Socio-economic and cultural influences, donor policies etc The links between policy and research communities – networks, relationships, power, competing discourses, trust, knowledge etc.

30 And allows useful comparisons 1. Ideal model e.g. ?? KnowledgeLinks Contexts 2. Islands model e.g. multilaterals Knowledge Links Contexts 3. Technocratic model e.g. donors Knowledge Links Contexts 4. Ivory Tower model e.g. Research institutes Knowledge Links Contexts

31 Political Context: Key Areas The macro political context (democracy, governance, media freedom; academic freedom) The sector / issue process (Policy uptake = demand – contestation) [NB Demand: political and societal. Power.] How policymakers think (narratives & policy streams) Policy implementation and practice (bureaucracies, incentives, street level, room for manoeuvre, participatory approaches) Decisive moments in the policy process (policy processes, votes, policy windows and crises) Context is crucial, but you can maximize your chances

32 Evidence: Relevance and credibility Key factor – did it provide a solution to a problem? Relevance: –Topical relevance – What to do? –Operational usefulness – How to do it? : Credibility: –Research approach –Of researcher > of evidence itself Strenuous advocacy efforts are often needed Communication

33 Links: Coalitions and Networks Feedback processes often prominent in successful cases. Trust & legitimacy Networks: –Epistemic communities –Policy networks –Advocacy coalitions The role of individuals: connectors, mavens and salesmen

34 External Influence Big incentives can spur evidence-based policy – e.g. PRSP processes. And some interesting examples of donors trying new things re. supporting research But, we really dont know whether and how donors can best promote use of evidence in policymaking (credibility vs backlash)

35 CSOs: Definitions and Functions Definition: organizations that work in an arena between the household, the private sector and the state to negotiate matters of public concern. Functions: –representation –technical inputs and advocacy –capacity-building –service-delivery –social functions

36 Types of CSOs think tanks and research institutes professional associations human rights advocacy bodies and other promotional groups foundations and other philanthropic bodies trade unions and workers co-operatives media/journalist societies community based organizations faith based organizations cross-national policy dialogue groups

37 Civil Society Partnerships Programme Outcomes: CSOs better understanding evidence-policy process Capacity to support CSOs established Improved information for CSOs Global collaboration Aim: Strengthened role of southern CSOs in development policy processes

38 Activities Principles of partnerships etc Mapping of CSOs and support organisations Regional Workshops Research, synthesis and toolkits Small-scale collaborations (internal) Small-scale collaborations (external) Identification of long-term partners Support (and capacity-building) Collaboration on global projects

39 Linking Evidence to Policy: Lessons Learnt Understanding Policy process means understanding the politics Demand led vs Supply driven Credibility of CSOs is questioned Capacity to use and package research for policy influence is limited Donor influence is huge Gradual erosion of research capacity in the South

40 Establishing capacity Engagement with policymakers varies Varied level of capacity in the south Retention and recruitment of qualified staff Role of research in development organization Lack of training opportunities More emphasis on policy advocacy Limited fund for research Strong Demand for support ( regional bias) Capacity of government institutions also in question

41 Partnership for Capacity Development Equitable Long-term commitment Intellectual honesty Mutual Trust Ethical Principle of Partnership Contextual ( strong regional variation) Capacity is demanded not given!!

42 Key issues for Partnership ODI needs to change ( Org and Staff) Invest time and resource Partnership to accommodate diversity of capacity Different modes of Partnerships ( research, networking, advocacy)

43 Capacity Development in CSPP Building a knowledge base of orgs Responding directly to CD demand of partners CSPP network –Training ( Research methodology, policy analysis, etc). –Facilitating exchange of information and knowledge ( Best Practice) –Support institutional development –Collaborative action research projects

44 Key factors for CSO influence (Malawi) Opposing Lack of capacity Lack of local ownership Translating data into evidence Lack of data Donor influence Crises Political factors Supporting Evidence of the value of CSO involvement Governments becoming more interested in CSOs CSOs are gaining confidence Strength of networks The media Political factors


46 Key-note Speakers [insert name] and blurb On the needs and pressures of policymaking On producing relevant and credible research Questions?

47 Plenary discussion: 1.How can we change what we do to be more useful for policymakers?

48 To Maximize Chances You need to: better understand how policy is made and options for policy entrepreneurship; use evidence more effectively in influencing policy-making processes; build stronger connections with other stakeholders; actively participate in policy networks communicate better.

49 Skills of (pro-poor) policy entrepreneurs Storytellers Engineers Networkers Fixers

50 Policy Entrepreneurship Questionnaire Rank responses Add scores Dont worry about specifics

51 Bangladesh CSO Policy Entrepreneurs >44 = Low <23 = V. High <30 = High

52 End DAY 1

53 DAY 2 Results of the Policy entrepreneurship questionnaire Tools –Identifying the problem and assessing the context

54 Comments Tendency to prefer storytelling and networking. Several people dislike fixing and engineering is close by. One of you has a strong preference: networking

55 Compared with others…

56 Understanding the context The RAPID Framework 28 Questions which explains how to use the framework

57 An Analytical Framework The political context – political and economic structures and processes, culture, institutional pressures, incremental vs radical change etc. The evidence – credibility, the degree it challenges received wisdom, research approaches and methodology, simplicity of the message, how it is packaged etc External Influences Socio-economic and cultural influences, donor policies etc The links between policy and research communities – networks, relationships, power, competing discourses, trust, knowledge etc.

58 A Practical Framework External Influences political context evidence links Campaigning, Lobbying Politics and Policymaking Media, Advocacy, Networking Research, learning & thinking Scientific information exchange & validation Policy analysis, & research

59 Using the framework The external environment: Who are the key actors? What is their agenda? How do they influence the political context? The political context: Is there political interest in change? Is there room for manoeuvre? How do they perceive the problem? The evidence: Is it there? Is it relevant? Is it practically useful? Are the concepts familiar or new? Does it need re-packaging? Links: Who are the key individuals? Are there existing networks to use? How best to transfer the information? The media? Campaigns?

60 Using the Framework

61 What CSOs need to do What CSOs need to know What CSOs need to do How to do it Political Context: Evidence Links Who are the policymakers? Is there demand for ideas? What is the policy process? What is the current theory? What are the narratives? How divergent is it? Who are the stakeholders? What networks exist? Who are the connectors, mavens and salesmen? Get to know the policymakers. Identify friends and foes. Prepare for policy opportunities. Look out for policy windows. Work with them – seek commissions Strategic opportunism – prepare for known events + resources for others Establish credibility Provide practical solutions Establish legitimacy. Present clear options Use familiar narratives. Build a reputation Action-research Pilot projects to generate legitimacy Good communication Get to know the others Work through existing networks. Build coalitions. Build new policy networks. Build partnerships. Identify key networkers, mavens and salesmen. Use informal contacts

62 Example of application Animal Healthcare in Kenya :You could use a time line of events… How PRSP came about:You could analyse events that lead to a significant development/change

63 The PRSP Story… The WB & IMF adopted PRSPs at the AGM in Sept as the 1 o instrument for HIPIC II (and subsequently for all loans) Why? What were the key factors? What role did evidence play in the process?

64 PRSPs – Evidence Long-term academic research informing new focus on poverty, participation, ownership, aid effectiveness etc Applied policy research: –ESAF reviews –HIPC review –SPA Working Groups –NGO research on debt Ugandas PEAP

65 PRSPs – Political Context Widespread awareness of a problem with international development policy in late 90s Failure of SAPs (and Asian financial crisis) Mounting public pressure for debt relief Stagnation of Comprehensive Development Framework idea Diverging agendas (UK – Poverty, US – Governance) WB/IMF Annual General Meeting, Sept 1999

66 PRSPs – Links WB, IMF, SPA, Bilaterals, NGOs all involved Formal and informal networks None of the players was more than two handshakes away from any of the others

67 Any questions? About the framework? About the cases?

68 Pick a policy issue to work on for rest of workshop You are working on. Is there a theme a group is interested in? Discuss it with your neighbours? Keep your notes!!

69 Group Work Use the RAPID Framework to analyse the key factors likely to affect the policy influence of your work (remember you will present each others work)

70 1.Go over all factors (pick the most relevant questions) 2.Answer: 1.How friendly is the policy context? 2.Do you have access to the right evidence? 3.Are there clear and strong links between evidence and policy? 4.How influential are the external forces?

71 Feedback and Discussion G roups (a few key points): What is the issue? What factors matter? Is the evidence credible? Others: Are the same issues important? Do you find the evidence credible? What is the present policy agenda?

72 Tools for Policy Influence

73 Practical Tools Overarching Tools - The RAPID Framework - Using the Framework - The Entrepreneurship Questionnaire Context Assessment Tools - Stakeholder Analysis - Forcefield Analysis - Writeshops - Policy Mapping - Political Context Mapping Communication Tools - Communications Strategy - SWOT analysis - Message Design - Making use of the media Research Tools - Case Studies - Episode Studies - Surveys - Bibliometric Analysis - Focus Group Discussion Policy Influence Tools - Influence Mapping & Power Mapping - Lobbying and Advocacy - Campaigning: A Simple Guide - Competency self-assessment

74 Policy Analysis: Methods and tools –RAPID Framework –Problem Situation Analysis (Tree Analysis) –Stakeholder Analysis –Policy Process Mapping –Force field analysis –Influence mapping –SWOT analysis

75 Problem Tree Analysis The first step is to discuss and agree the problem or issue to be analysed. Next the group identify the causes of the focal problem – these become the roots – and then identify the consequences – which become the branches The heart of the exercise is the discussion, debate and dialogue that is generated as factors are arranged and re- arranged, often forming sub- dividing roots and branches

76 Stakeholder Analysis Clarify the policy change objective Identify all the stakeholders associated with this objective Organise the stakeholders in the matrice according to interest and power Develop strategy to engage with different stakeholders Keep Satisfied Engage Closely and Influence Actively Monitor (minimum effort) Keep Informed High Power Low High Interest

77 Mapping Policy Processes AgendasFormulationImplementation Central Government Parliament Bureaucrats Civil Society State Government Implementation Civil Society

78 SWOT Analysis What type of policy influencing skills and capacities do we have? In what areas have our staff used them more effectively? Who are our strongest allies? When have they worked with us? Are there any windows of opportunity? What can affect our ability to influence policy? StrengthsWeaknesses OpportunitiesThreats Skills and abilities Funding lines Commitment to positions Contacts and Partners Existing activities Other orgs relevant to the issue Resources: financial, technical, human Political and policy space Other groups or forces

79 Planning: Social Network Analysis Focus on structure of relationships Nodes and links between nodes Nodes: people, groups and organizations, etc. Links: social contacts, exchange of information, political influence, membership in org etc Social processes influence organizations and vice versa


81 Tools –Identifying the forces for and against change and developing the strategy

82 Force field Analysis Specific Change Identify Forces (Identify Priorities) (Develop Strategies)

83 Force Field Analysis Think about: –Who needs to change –Who can support and who can resist change Do not confuse strength of force with importance of force Look out for: –VERY strong forces –Priorities –Nested FFA (you might have to re-think your problem)

84 Group work: Use Force field analysis to identify key issues and strategic objectives Feedback –highlighting examples (remember you are telling each others strategies): –Main forces for and against –Overall strategic options –Implications for problem analysis?

85 Tomorrow We will begin with sharing experience of projects. You will use some of the questions and tools to collect information about the problems faced by the school/project and its context Use your What to watch for hand out as a guide, only. Ask questions, observe, take pictures if possible, make sketches, get quotes.

86 End of DAY 2

87 Day 3 Developing a strategy

88 The over all framework Identify the problem Understand the context Identify the audience(s) Develop a SMART Strategy Identify the message(s) Resources – staff, time, partners & $$ Promotion – tools & activities Monitor, learn, adapt How? Who? What?

89 Communication Toolkit for Researchers and CSOs Why Communicate? (To inspire, inform and learn). African agriculture Researchers have failed identify the problems facing policymakers ( Omamao 2003). Each stakeholder has different communication needs, information is accessed by them differently, need research results in different times and different formats (Mortimer et al 2003). Communication capacity – is a long term process How to improve communication of research to policymakers, to other researchers and the end users ( i.e NGOs, CBOs, etc). Communication tools

90 Audience Who needs to make these changes? Who has the power? What is their stance on the issue? Who influences them? Identify targets and influence (use stakeholder & context mapping tools)

91 Message Why should things change (or what is the evidence to support your case?) How to make sure that the evidence is credible and legitimate? What the target audience can hear.... frameworks of thought Language, content, packaging, and timing

92 Messenger (Promotion) How to access information and target? Who is a trusted and credible messenger? What is the most appropriate medium? ( campaigns, public mobilisation, formal and informal lobbying) How will you package your information? Role of the media?

93 Different Approaches

94 Issues: Persuasion Separate people from problem Focus on interests, not positions Invent options for mutual gain Insist on using objective criteria. Manage human emotion separately from the practical problem Highlight the human need to feel heard, understood, respected and valued.

95 Targeting: Writing Effective Policy Papers Providing a solution to a policy problem Structural elements of a paper –Problem description –Policy options –Conclusion Key issues: Problem oriented, targeted, multidisciplinary, applied, clear, jargon-free. [Source: Young and Quinn, 2002]

96 Issues: Lobbying Be an authority on the subject Include all group in the work Be positive in your approach Be aware of the agenda and language on the government in power Identify and target politicians Time your input Use the Media to lobby

97 Advocacy Rules (Or how to influence people to make changes....)

98 What are the changes you are trying to bring about? Use the problem tree or some other tool to identify problems, impact of the problem and root causes Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-Bound (SMART) objectives

99 Who are you advocating/communicating to? Who needs to make these changes? Who has the power? What is their stance on the issue? Awareness, Knowledge, Attitude, Behaviour Targets and influence Mapping where decisions happen Analyse the outcome and then decide.

100 Who are you working together with? 1.Who do you need to work with? 2.Identify your niche (SWOT) 3.Stakeholder Mapping 4.Structures for collaborative working 5.Skills needed in teams 6.Benefits and pitfalls of collaborations

101 Why do you want to make the changes? Why should things change (or what is the evidence to support your case?) How to make sure that the evidence is credible and legitimate? The evidence : accurate, credible, well researched, authoritative… What the target audience wants to hear....

102 Advocacy Statement A concise and persuasive statement that captures What you want to achieve, Why, How and by when? Should communicate with your target audience and prompt action Think about language, content, packaging, and timing Persuasive

103 How will you communicate your messages and evidence? How to target and access information? Who is a trusted and credible messenger? What is the most appropriate medium? How will you package your information? Role of the media

104 Where and when to advocate/communicate ? Creating opportunities (campaigns, public mobilisation, formal and informal lobbying etc.) Influencing existing agendas Piggybacking on other agendas

105 Group work 1.In your country groups: 1.Write up a strategy brief detailing: problem, context, audience, strategy, message and messenger 2.Develop a presentation of your message 2.To the plenary: 1.Present your message

106 Lunch

107 Monitoring and learning

108 Why is this important? Because we need to be able to be strategic And strategies need to be evidence based But most relevant evidence is held by the process of policy influence –we will learn it as we do it And we must have the capacity to respond to new evidence and adapt our strategy –Do not think about evaluation! –Think monitoring LEARNING and adapting

109 External networks; Colleagues; Information assets What are we talking about when we say knowledge and learning? …The idea is not to create an encyclopaedia of everything that everybody knows, but to keep track of people who know the recipe, and nurture the technology and culture that will get them talking… Goals Results Using Knowledge Using Knowledge Learn during Learn after Learn before

110 There are different forms of knowledge… Start Has it been articulated? Can it been articulated? ExplicitTacit Implicit YN Y N

111 …and different approaches to learning and influencing

112 Getting the environment right Shared beliefs and common values A willingness to ask for help Common technology which connects people Effective Peer Processes Rewarding and recognising learning Identifying and reinforcing the right leadership behaviours

113 Some quotes "Practice provides the rails on which knowledge flows." John Seely-Brown "When knowledge gained somewhere doesn't move elsewhere, that's not a learning organization; that's just a bunch of projects." Saratoga Institute It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change. Charles Darwin Most activities or tasks are not one time events… our philosophy is fairly simple: every time we do something again we should do it better than the last time. Lord Browne

114 ODI experience Knowledge and learning are at the heart of the ODI approach to bridge research, policy and practice ODI research groups and networks provide a substantial knowledge base –e.g. ALNAP and RAPID The CSPP has systematic learning as a core principle

115 The Knowledge Strategies Framework organisational contexts leadership approaches, governance structures, management processes, institutional pressures, funding cycles, historical evolution etc. knowledge – forms and locations; processes – e.g.: creation, sharing, storage, use; key activities and tools; staff capacities; relevance, M&E external factors knowledge of partners, donors, other external agencies; networks; national and global factors links within and across the organisation boundaries – via communities and ICTs; to communications plans; to core functions and support functions, etc

116 The framework can be used to devise and revise strategies The external factors How does the knowledge and learning strategy address issues emerging from external relationships and factors? The context How do issues of institutional governance, politics and economics support or hinder the knowledge and learning strategy? Links How does knowledge and learning link to structures, functions, core activities, supporting activities and processes of a given organisation? The knowledge How is knowledge and learning understood and applied within each organisation? What tools are used, why and how?

117 Knowledge: processes and tools There are a range of processes to consider –Mapping and creation of knowledge –Managing and storing knowledge –Learning and sharing knowledge –Use of knowledge The different processes and different forms of knowledge can be brought together…

118 Knowledge: a menu of tools

119 What kind of learner are you? People show preferences for particular learning styles, and different learning activities are suited to different styles of learning. You are most likely to learn when your learning style and the nature of the activity match. So if you can choose among activities to learn the same subject, you may be able to choose an activity to match your preferred style. But often you arent given the luxury of a choice, so you will need to use a style that may not come naturally. If you are prepared to use different styles on occasion, so that you strengthen styles that you currently dont often use, you can become an all-round learner, able to benefit from any learning opportunity.

120 What kind of learner are you?

121 Activists Activists are people who learn by doing. They like to involve themselves in new experiences, and will try anything once. They tend to act first and consider the consequences afterwards

122 Reflectors Reflectors learn by observing and thinking about what happened. They like to consider all the possible angles and implications before coming to a considered opinion. They spend time listening and observing, and tend to be cautious and thoughtful

123 Theorists Theorists like to understand the theory behind the actions. They need models, concepts and facts in order to learn. They like to analyse and synthesise, and feel uncomfortable with subjective judgements

124 Pragmatists Pragmatists are keen on trying things out. They look for new ideas that can be applied to the problem in hand. They like to get on with things and tend to be impatient with open-ended discussions; they are practical, down-to- earth people

125 Four Simple Questions: What was supposed to happen? What actually happened? Why was there a difference? What can we learn from it? 15 minute team debrief, conducted in a rank- free environment. After action reviews: learning during projects

126 What was the objective of the project? What did we achieve? What were the successes? Why? How can we repeat the success? What were the disappointments? Why? How can we avoid them in future? Marks out of 100, what would move it closer to 100? Facilitated, forward looking team meeting, soon after the project has ended The Retrospect – Learning after projects

127 Monitoring ex-ante … ex-post is sometimes too late A short introduction to OUTCOME MAPPING

128 What are the problems we face? The problem with attribution –Multiple actors and factors contribute –Unintended results are often ignored –Influence shifts overtime (indirect relation) –Impact of our interventions occurs further down the development chain The problem with Accountability vs. Learning

129 The problem with attribution CEF National Gov Family Local Gov GRO USAID Church CSO DFID

130 Why do we face these problems? Because the responsibility for achieving results ultimately depends on the actions of our partners as influenced by the contexts in which they work Focusing on downstream impact increases programming bureaucratisation and is inconsistent with our understanding of develpment as a complex process.

131 What is OM? OM is a dynamic methodology useful in the development of planning, monitoring and evaluation mechanism. OM: –Provides the tools to think holistically and strategically about how it intends to achieve results –Focuses on Outcomes instead of impactsFocuses on Outcomes instead of impacts –It deals with Contribution instead of attribution –Forces us to limit our planning and evaluation to our sphere of influence –Deals with changes in the behaviours of our direct partners

132 The 3 Stages of OM The intentional design stage: helps answer 4 questions: 1) Why? (developing a vision statement); 2) Who? (identifying the primary partners); 3) What? (specifying desired outcomes and relevant progress markers); and, 4) How? (articulating the mission and a portfolio of strategies). The outcome and performance monitoring stage: provides a framework for a continuous monitoring of the initiative as a tool to achieving its outcomes. The program uses progress markers, a set of graduated indicators of behavioural change, identified in the intentional design stage to clarify directions with its primary partners and to monitor outcomes. The evaluation planning stage: helps identify the evaluation priorities assessing the strategy at greater depth than the performance monitoring stage.

133 Intentional design Boundary Partners –Individuals, groups and organisations with whom the programme interacts directly to effect changes. –Those that you are trying to encourage to change so that they can contribute to the vision? With whom will you work directly? –We must try to group similar partners according to the type of behavioural changes sought. Boundary partners are different from strategic partners.

134 Boundary partners = Program`s Partners Program

135 Intentional design Outcome Challenges –The changed behaviours (relationships, activities and/or actions) of the boundary partner and how they would be behaving if they were contributing ideally to the vision. –Imagine that in 3-5 years PartCom has been extremely successful. What would our boundary partners be doing to contribute maximally to the vision? –Outcome challenges are about the boundary partner, not the programme.

136 Intentional design Progress markers –Step by step progressive changes that one expects to see (short run), would like to see (medium to long run) and love to see (very long run) –keep it simple, 15 max! –Are about CHANGES IN BEHAVIOURS OF BOUNDARY PARTNERS –Are linear but NOT static –Must be revised –Help monitor the effectiveness of the strategy

137 Intentional design Strategy Map –Outlines the programmes approach in working with the boundary partners –How will the programme contribute to the achievement of the outcome challenged over the next X months/years? –Use force field analysis

138 The three stages of OM

139 Further Information / Resources ODI Working Papers Bridging Research and Policy Book JID Special Issue Meeting Reports Tools for Impact

140 Contact Details: Naved Chowdhury – Enrique Mendizabal: RAPID Programme, ODI

141 Other sources of information: Visit or for a copy of the RAPID/CSPP CD-ROM

142 Closing comments 1.Was this useful? 2.What will you do different from now on? 3.How can we help you?

143 Thank you

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