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Turning Insight into Impact: Approaches and Tools Research and Policy in Development Programme DSA-BOND Conference 2005 John Young and Julius Court.

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Presentation on theme: "Turning Insight into Impact: Approaches and Tools Research and Policy in Development Programme DSA-BOND Conference 2005 John Young and Julius Court."— Presentation transcript:

1 Turning Insight into Impact: Approaches and Tools Research and Policy in Development Programme DSA-BOND Conference 2005 John Young and Julius Court

2 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Workshop Objectives a)Share experiences about research-practice interfaces in international development ; b)Discuss the latest worldwide research and practice in this area; c)Share experiences about approaches to strengthen research-practice links & what works; d)Identify tools to improve use of evidence in development practice.

3 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Outline of the Workshop Part 1 (morning) Introductions Theory: Research-Practice Interface Groups: Identification of Key Questions Feedback & Discussion Policy Entrepreneur Questionnaire Part 2 (after lunch) Feedback: Policy Entrepreneur Questionnaire Introduction to Toolkit Groups: Tools and Approaches Feedback & Discussion Close

4 Self Introductions 30 Seconds! Name Organization

5 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, The Opportunity The results of household disease surveys informed processes of health service reform which contributed to a 43 and 46 per cent reduction in infant mortality between 2000 and 2003 in two districts in rural Tanzania. IDRC TEHIP Project

6 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, HIV Prevalence Source: UNAIDS

7 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Rationale Evidence can help … Identify issues / problems for policymakers Prioritize between issues Develop strategies Improve effectiveness of interventions Assess whether a strategy is working

8 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Existing theory – useful in DCs? 1.Linear model 2.Percolation model, Weiss 3.Tipping point model, Gladwell 4.Context, evidence, links framework, ODI 5.Policy narratives, Roe 6.Systems model (NSI) 7.External forces, Lindquist 8.Room for manoeuvre, Clay & Schaffer 9.Street level bureaucrats, Lipsky 10.Policy as social experiments, Rondinelli 11.Policy Streams & Windows, Kingdon 12.Disjointed incrementalism, Lindquist 13.The tipping point, Gladwell 14.Crisis model, Kuhn 15. Framework of possible thought, Chomsky 16.Variables for Credibility, Beach 17.The source is as important as content, Gladwell 18.Linear model of communication, Shannon 19.Interactive model, 20.Simple and surprising stories, Communication Theory 21.Provide solutions, Marketing Theory I 22.Find the right packaging, Marketing II 23.Elicit a response, Kottler 24.Translation of technology, Volkow 25.Epistemic communities 26.Policy communities 27.Advocacy coalitions etc, Pross 28.Negotiation through networks, Sebattier 29.Shadow networks, Klickert 30.Chains of accountability, Fine 31.Communication for social change, Rockefeller 32.Wheels and webs, Chapman & Fisher 33.National Systems of Innovation

9 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Existing theory – a short list Policy narratives, Roe Systems of Innovation Model, (NSI) Room for manoeuvre, Clay & Schaffer Street level bureaucrats, Lipsky Policy as social experiments, Rondene Policy streams and policy windows, Kingdon Disjointed Incrementalism, Lindblom Social Epidemics, Gladwell The RAPID Framework

10 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, …in reality… The whole life of policy is a chaos of purposes and accidents. It is not at all a matter of the rational implementation of the so-called decisions through selected strategies 1 Most policy research on African agriculture is irrelevant to agricultural and overall economic policy in Africa 2 Research is more often regarded as the opposite of action rather than a response to ignorance Clay & Schaffer (1984), Room for Manoeuvre; An Exploration of Public Policy in Agricultural and Rural Development, Heineman Educational Books, London 2 - Omamo (2003), Policy Research on African Agriculture: Trends, Gaps, and Challenges, International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) Research Report No Surr (2003), DFID Research Review

11 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, RAPID Programme Research Research-Policy Links Communications Knowledge Management Advisory work Workshops and seminars Evaluations CSO Partnership Programme

12 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, An Analytical Framework The political context – political and economic structures and processes, culture, institutional pressures, incremental vs radical change etc. The evidence – credibility, the degree it challenges received wisdom, research approaches and methodology, simplicity of the message, how it is packaged etc External Influences Socio-economic and cultural influences, donor policies etc The links between policy and research communities – networks, relationships, power, competing discourses, trust, knowledge etc.

13 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Political Context: Key Issues The macro political context (democracy, governance, media freedom; academic freedom) Policy uptake = demand – contestation) [NB Demand: political and societal. Power matters.] How policymakers think (narratives & policy streams) Policy implementation and practice (bureaucracies, incentives, room for manoeuvre, participatory approaches) Decisive moments in the policy process (policy processes, votes, policy windows and crises) Context is crucial, but you can maximize your chances

14 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Evidence: Relevance and Credibility Provides solutions to a problem. Relevance: –Topical relevance – What to do? –Operational usefulness – How to do it? : Credibility: –Research approach –Of researcher > of evidence itself Strenuous advocacy efforts are often needed Communication

15 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Links: Feedback and Networks Engagement and feedback. Trust & legitimacy Networks The role of individuals and champions: –connectors –mavens –salesmen

16 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, External Influence Big incentives can spur evidence-based policy – e.g. PRSP processes. And some interesting examples of donors trying new things re. supporting research But, we really dont know whether and how donors can best promote use of evidence in policymaking (credibility vs backlash)

17 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Conclusions (Action) Research is essential but… Other work is needed to ensure it contributes to the development and implementation. Clear lessons about how are emerging: –Political context is crucial – understand it to maximize your chances –Figure out what evidence is needed and how to package it for policy makers –Collaborate with other actors

18 Any Questions?

19 Group Work 1: What are the key factors affecting research - practice links in your work? From the handout …. Which arena should we give most emphasis? Are these the key questions? What key questions is missing?

20 Feedback and Discussion

21 Any Questions?

22 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Policy Entrepreneurship Questionnaire

23 Please dont leave without handing in your questionnaires !

24 Tools and Approaches

25 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, A Practical Framework External Influences political context evidence links Politics and Policymaking Media, Advocacy, Networking Research, learning & thinking Scientific information exchange & validation Policy analysis, & research Campaigning, Lobbying

26 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, What you need to know The external environment: Who are the key actors? What is their agenda? How do they influence the political context? The political context: Is there political interest in change? Is there room for manoeuvre? How do they perceive the problem? The evidence: Is it there? Is it relevant? Is it practically useful? Are the concepts familiar or new? Does it need re-packaging? Links: Who are the key individuals? Are there existing networks to use? How best to transfer the information? The media? Campaigns?

27 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, What you need to do What researchers need to know What researchers need to do How to do it Political Context: Evidence Links Who are the policymakers? Is there demand for ideas? What is the policy process? What is the current theory? What are the narratives? How divergent is it? Who are the stakeholders? What networks exist? Who are the connectors, mavens and salesmen? Get to know the policymakers. Identify friends and foes. Prepare for policy opportunities. Look out for policy windows. Work with them – seek commissions Strategic opportunism – prepare for known events + resources for others Establish credibility Provide practical solutions Establish legitimacy. Present clear options Use familiar narratives. Build a reputation Action-research Pilot projects to generate legitimacy Good communication Get to know the others Work through existing networks. Build coalitions. Build new policy networks. Build partnerships. Identify key networkers, mavens and salesmen. Use informal contacts

28 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Skills of (pro-poor) policy entrepreneurs Storytellers Engineers Networkers Fixers

29 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Samer Marwa Hussein Marwa Bayomi Sayeda Alid Shereen Salman Rasha May Ghalwash Haytham Tarek Ahmed Fouad Ahmed Abdel Razek Maha Yousseft Mohamed Hadil Amel Ali Heba Khaled Abdel Rehim Average >44 = Low SMEPol Policy entrepreneurs <23 = V.High <30 = High

30 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Compared with others…

31 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, An Analytical Framework The political context – political and economic structures and processes, culture, institutional pressures, incremental vs radical change etc. The evidence – credibility, the degree it challenges received wisdom, research approaches and methodology, simplicity of the message, how it is packaged etc External Influences Socio-economic and cultural influences, donor policies etc The links between policy and research communities – networks, relationships, power, competing discourses, trust, knowledge etc.

32 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Practical Tools Overarching Tools - The RAPID Framework - Using the Framework - The Entrepreneurship Questionnaire Context Assessment Tools - Stakeholder Analysis - Forcefield Analysis - Writeshops - Policy Mapping - Political Context Mapping Communication Tools - Communications Strategy - SWOT analysis - Message Design - Making use of the media Research Tools - Case Studies - Episode Studies - Surveys - Bibliometric Analysis - Focus Group Discussion Policy Influence Tools - Influence Mapping & Power Mapping - Lobbying and Advocacy - Campaigning: A Simple Guide - Competency self-assessment

33 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Stakeholder Analysis Why: To understand who gains or lose from a policy or project. To help Build Consensus. Steps: 1.Identify Stakeholders 2.Analysis Workshop 3.Develop Strategies Keep Satisfied Engage Closely Monitor (minimum effort) Keep Informed High Power Low High Interest

34 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Forcefield Analysis Identify what you want to achieve Identify forces for and against change Identify which are most important Develop strategies to reinforce those for and overcome those against

35 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Policy Process Mapping General Context issues – domestic and international. Specific Policy Issues (i.e. the policy cycle) Who are the Stakeholders? (Stakeholder analysis) –Arena: government, parliament, civil society, judiciary, private sector. –Level: local, national, international What is their Interest and Influence? Process matrix + political matrix Political and administrative feasibility assessment [Sources: M. Grindle / J. Court ]

36 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Policy Process Mapping Group 1 – Government Group 2 – Political Society and Bureaucracy Group 3 – Civil Society, Private Sector and International

37 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, SMEPOL Project Egypt Policy Process Mapping RAPID Framework Stakeholder Analysis Force-Field Analysis SWOT Action Planning

38 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, DFID Policy Process Workshop Looking at internal policy processes – what works in DFID. Small, informal workshop with 7 staff. Participatory pair-wise ranking of factors influencing the success of 8 policy processes. Worked quite well. In DFID - agendas and processes rather than documents are key

39 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Communications strategy Identify the audience(s) Identify the message(s) Promotion Evaluate impact and change as necessary Clear Strategy –Interactive –Multiple formats How? Who? What? The DELIVERI Project: Information Strategy / LeafletInformation Strategy Leaflet Materials

40 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Writing Effective Policy Papers I Providing a solution to a policy problem The policy community The policy process Structural elements of a paper –Problem description –Policy options –Conclusion Key issues: Problem oriented, targeted, multidisciplinary, applied, clear, jargon-free. [Source: Young and Quinn, 2002]

41 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, For effective policy advocacy… Need to be able to: –Understand the political context –Do credible (action)research –Communicate effectively –Work with others Need organisational capacity –Staff –Internal processes –Funds

42 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Organisational development tools Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: –The entrepreneurship questionnaire –Training & mentoring etc Knowledge Management Organisational development –Finance, admin & personnel systems –Strategic (action & business) planning –Fundraising & reporting Building an organisational profile –Communications, Public Affairs and the Media Struyk, 2002, Local Governance Institute, Open Society Network, Budapest

43 Group Work 2 What approaches and tools do you use to inform practice? What works? Do you have any good examples of use of evidence in improving development practice?

44 RAPID Programme DSA-BOND, London, May, Further Information / Resources ODI Working Papers Bridging Research and Policy Book Meeting series Monograph Tools for Policy Impact RAPID Briefing Paper RAPID CDROM


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