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Introduction to Psychology Personality. Plan for Today Psychoanalytic theory Cognitive and Social Learning theory Humanistic theory Trait theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Psychology Personality. Plan for Today Psychoanalytic theory Cognitive and Social Learning theory Humanistic theory Trait theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Psychology Personality

2 Plan for Today Psychoanalytic theory Cognitive and Social Learning theory Humanistic theory Trait theory

3 Personality Research Personality refers to enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation, and behavior that are expressed in different circumstances The aim of personality research is to –Construct general theories of personality –Assess individual differences in personality

4 Psychodynamic Views of Personality Freud invoked a role of unconscious processes in the control of behavior –Based on his observations of clients Topographical model: argued for 3 levels of consciousness –Conflict occurs between the different aspects of consciousness –Requires compromise formation ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO

5 Freud’s Developmental Model Human behavior is motivated by two drives –Aggressive –Sexual Libido refers to pleasure-seeking and sensuality as well as desire for intercourse Libido follows a developmental course during childhood –Stages of development –Fixed progression of change from stage to stage –Notion of fixation at a particular libidinal stage


7 Ego Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms are unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from anxiety –Repression: anxiety-evoking thoughts are kept unconscious -Denial: person refuses to recognize reality - Projection: person attributes their own unacceptable impulses to others

8 Ego Defense Mechanisms –Reaction Formation: person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse –Sublimation: person converts an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable activity –Rationalization: person explains away their actions to reduce anxiety –Displacement: diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target

9 Other Psychoanalytic Theorists Jung’s Analytical Psychology Adler’s Individual Psychology Anna Freud Erik Erikson Harry Sullivan

10 Evaluation of Freud’s Contributions to Personality Theory Contributions –Emphasis on unconscious processes –Identification of defense mechanisms –Importance of childhood experiences in shaping adult personality Limitations –Theories are not solidly based on scientific observation –Excessive emphasis on drives such as sex and aggression © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

11 Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Observational (Vicarious) Learning people learn by merely observing what others do and what happens to them two processes: –acquisition –acceptance/performance consequences are an important influence

12 RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM PERSON (cognitions, expectations) BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT (contingencies)

13 Albert Ellis: Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) Assumes that all humans have fundamental goals, purposes and values (e.g., stay alive, be satisfied) if people choose to stay alive & try to be happy/satisfied they are acting “rationally” when people think/emote/behave in a way that interferes with these goals, they act “irrationally”

14 Evaluation of Cognitive-Social Personality Theory Contributions –Provided emphasis on the role of thought and memory in personality –Emphasized situational influences Limitations –Overemphasis of rational side of personality –Avoidance of explanations of unconscious processes in personality

15 Humanistic Personality Approaches Humanistic personality theorists reject the behaviorist and psychodynamic notions of personality Humanists emphasize the notion that each person has a potential for creative growth The intent is to assist the person in developing to their maximal potential

16 Roger’s Person-Centered Approach Rogers believed that humans are good by nature (in contrast to psychodynamic view of human nature) Rogers emphasized the notion of self-concept Each person has multiple selves: –True-self: the core aspect of being –False-self: the self that is created by distortions from interpersonal experiences –Ideal-self: what the person would like to be

17 Evaluation of Humanistic Personality Theory © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Contributions –Focus on how humans strive to determine the meaning of life Limitations –Humanistic approach is not a complete theoretical account of personality –The approach has not generated a body of testable hypotheses and research

18 Trait Theories of Personality Trait: refers to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral tendencies as well as the underlying dimensions that form personality Traits can be measured by –Asking others to rate a person –Asking the person to fill out a questionnaire How many traits are required? –Allport noted some 18,000 traits –Cattell argued for 16 distinct traits (factor analysis) –Eysenck: extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism

19 Trait Approach ASSUMPTION 1: traits are stable over time ASSUMPTION 2: traits are stable across situations people differ on continuous variables or dimensions traits exist on a continuum basic differences between people are quantitative traits are used to understand and predict behaviour emphasizes measurement of traits through tests TRAIT : Consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, or actions that distinguish people.

20 The Big Five Factors of Personality Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism OCEAN...

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